PA Civil War
Civil War History in Philadelphia, PA
Background and Buildup
On the 6th of November, 1860, the long political struggle between the North and the South on the slavery question, which began in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and which was intensified by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, ended with the election to the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln and the triumph of the Republican party. The accession of the anti-slavery party to political power filled the South with dismay and created the greatest excitement throughout the country. Hardly had the result been ascertained before some of the extreme Southern States began military preparations, and set on foot measures to carry into effect their oft-repeated threats of secession and combination in resistance to alleged Northern encroachments. Meetings were held in every city, town, and village of the South, and these were addressed in vehement language by members of Congress and other prominent speakers. Resistance to the authority of the new administration and the duty of the Southern States to secede from the Union were the chief topics of their impassioned appeals to the people. On the 20th of December the State convention of South Carolina, after a brief debate, passed the ordinance of secession by a unanimous vote, and on the following day a declaration of the causes which had led to this action was also adopted.
The announcement of the passage of the ordinance of secession excited general enthusiasm in all the more Southern slave States, but in other slave States, particularly the border States, it served to intensify the painful feeling with which their people had watched the progress of events in South Carolina. That the action of the latter State had been hasty and ill-judged a majority even of the people of the South admitted, and this fact gave additional poignancy to the general sorrow with which this first disunion movement was regarded. By the passage of the South Carolina ordinance of secession an impetus was given to the prevailing excitement in the South, and the measures of the cotton States, looking in the same direction, were greatly accelerated. Mississippi followed the example of South Carolina on the 9th of January, 1861; Alabama and Florida, January 11th; Georgia, January 20th; Louisiana, January 26th; Texas, February 1st; Virginia, April 17th; Tennessee, May 6th; Arkansas, May 18th; North Carolina, May 21st; and Kentucky, November 20th.
The progress of these events caused intense excitement in Philadelphia, where the people were pronounced and decided in their support of the Union. The geographical position of the State of Pennsylvania, added to its overshadowing political importance, made the duties of the Governor peculiarly responsible and perplexing. Separated from the slave States by an imaginary line, and looked to from both the North and the South to exhaust its great moral and political power to avert the threatened conflict, every expression from its government was awaited with profound interest. It was under these grave circumstances that Andrew G. Curtin took the gubernatorial chair. The conflict which was then raging throughout the country obliterated old and sacred landmarks in political teaching, but in his inaugural address of January, 1861, Governor Curtin proclaimed the duties of patriotism, and sounded the sentiments of the North upon the relations of the States to each other. In that address he said,
"No one who knows the history of Pennsylvania, and understands the opinions and feelings of her people, can justly charge us with hostility to our brethren of other States. We regard them as friends and fellow-countrymen, in whose welfare we feel a kindred interest, and we recognize in their broadest extent all our constitutional obligations to them."
Upon the right of a State to secede from the Union, he said,
"No part of the people, no State, nor combination of States, can voluntarily secede from the Union, nor absolve themselves from their obligations to it. To permit a State to withdraw at pleasure from the Union without the consent of the rest, is to confess that our government is a failure. Pennsylvania can never acquiesce in such a conspiracy, nor assent to a doctrine which involves the destruction of the government. If the government is to exist all the requirements of the Constitution must be obeyed; and it must have power adequate to the enforcement of the supreme law of the land in every State. It is the first duty of the national authorities to stay the progress of anarchy and enforce the laws, and Pennsylvania, with a united people, will give them an honest, faithful, and active support. The people mean to preserve the integrity of the National Union at every hazard."
Again on the 30th of April, when the Legislature met in extraordinary session in obedience to his proclamation, he said, "The time is past for temporizing or forbearing with the rebellion, the most causeless in history. . . . The insurrection must now be met by force of arms, and a quarter of a million of Pennsylvania's sons will answer the call to arms, if need be, to wrest us from a reign of anarchy and plunder, and secure for themselves and their children, for ages to come, the perpetuity of this government and its beneficent institutions."
Finally the Legislature of the State passed the following resolutions, early in the session of 1861, upon the subject of secession, then being actively pushed in the Southern States, which were a fair index to the temper of the people, and which gave no uncertain sound as to the course which Pennsylvania would pursue in the impending crisis:
"Resolved, That if the people of any State in this Union are not in full enjoyment of all the benefits to be secured by them by the said Constitution, if their rights under it are disregarded, their tranquillity disturbed, their prosperity retarded, or their liberties imperiled by the people of any other State, full and adequate redress can and ought to be provided for such grievances through the action of Congress and other proper departments of the national government. That we adopt the sentiment and language of President Andrew Jackson, expressed in his message to Congress on the 16th of January, 1833, that the right of a people of a single State to absolve themselves at will and without the consent of the other States from their most solemn obligations, and hazard the liberties and happiness of millions composing this Union, cannot be acknowledged, and that such authority is utterly repugnant, both to the principles upon which the general government is constituted, and the objects which it was expressly formed to attain. That the Constitution of the United States of America contains all the powers necessary to the maintenance of its authority, and it is the solemn and most imperative duty of the government to adopt and carry into effect whatever measures are necessary to that end; and the faith and power of Pennsylvania are hereby pledged to the support of such measures in any manner, and to any extent that may be required of her by the constituted authorities of the United States. That all plots, conspiracies, and warlike demonstrations against the United States, in any section of the country, are treasonable in character, and whatever power of the government is necessary to their suppression should be supplied to that purpose without hesitation or delay."
The authorities of Pennsylvania understood the magnitude of the impending conflict, and resolved to prepare for it according to their appreciation of the public danger. With a long line of southern border exposed to the sudden incursions of the Confederates, and the Union army at first composed of only three months men, and likely even with these to be outnumbered in the field, they determined not to rely upon the mistaken conceptions of the Federal authorities for the protection of the State. Immediate steps were taken to organize troops, subject to the call of the Federal government, if needed, and to be at all times in readiness for active service. And when the nation stood appalled after the disasters at Bull Run, and Washington was exposed to the attacks of the Confederates, Pennsylvania was the first to forward a thoroughly organized and equipped military force to strengthen and reinspire the Union army in defense of the capital. The reputation of the State for promptness in furnishing troops when called for by the government was maintained throughout the war. Pennsylvania, during this crisis, was an empire in itself, and its vast wealth and resources were constantly tempting to devastate it. She, however, never asked that the armies in the field should be diminished to defend her territory or maintain the State's authority; but, on the contrary, she cheerfully supplied every demand for troops as fast as called for, and in addition always displayed a willingness to raise forces for her local protection. The Legislature gave an attentive ear to the government appeals for aid in defense of the Union, and voted liberally millions of money in support of the cause. Besides all this, Pennsylvania was ceaseless in her devotion to the interests and wants of those whom the State had given for the national defense. She sent kind agents to the field, who visited the soldiers in their camps and provided for their wants. Wherever were sickness, or wounds, or death, there was the official agent of the State to perform every duty to the living and the last rites to the dead. The bodies of the deceased were brought back to sleep with their kindred, and their names enrolled in the lists of the martyred patriots.
The election of Mr. Lincoln excited comparatively little interest in Philadelphia. The result had been accepted beforehand as a foregone conclusion.
"We never saw an Selection," said a Philadelphia paper of November 7th,
"for even ward officers, that excited so little interest. . . . After nightfall persons began to assemble about the newspaper- and telegraph-offices to get some news from New York. But there was even here nothing like the interest usually evinced in a Presidential election." About nine o'clock at night a procession of men and boys made its appearance on Chestnut Street, with a transparency at its head bearing the inscription, "Lincoln on his way to the White House." The illustrations of this text were, however, so equivocal as to make it uncertain what party the men belonged to, and, finally, when the procession reached Fifth and Chestnut Streets, a disturbance occurred, which caused the interference of the police and the arrest of the more active participants. During the evening processions were formed by the Lincoln clubs belonging to the different wards, each having transparencies with the majority given in the ward represented by it.
At a meeting of the Democratic Association of the Twenty-second Ward, held at their hall in Germantown on the 8th of November, Harry Ingersoll, late Democratic nominee from the Fifth Congressional District, presiding, and Franklin Jones, secretary, resolutions were adopted regretting the result of the election, but declaring it to be the duty of all Democrats to acquiesce in the will of the majority constitutionally expressed. At the same time it was resolved "to extend to that portion of our 1860 fellow-countrymen of the South, who think differently, the assurance of a cordial and respectful fellow-feeling, under the invasion of their constitutional rights and domestic peace and dignity to which they have been so long subjected by the controlling voice of the party which has now prevailed in the choice of a Chief Magistrate." The South was also urged to reflect well before proceeding to extreme measures, and was appealed to not to desert "the weaker party at the North, struck down in their defense." The sentiments expressed by Mr. Lincoln in his speeches were denounced as being "subversive of our mixed federal and national system," and it was declared that they (the members of the meeting) were "not yet able to spare a single star or a single stripe from the glorious flag of the Union." Among those who advocated the resolutions were J.G. Gibson, A.S. Tourison, Albertis King, George W. Wolf, William Best, H. Harkins, and Harry Ingersoll.
On the 22nd of November the banks of Philadelphia determined to suspend specie payments. The measure was precipitated upon them, and the other banks of the Union, by the political agitation which had destroyed confidence between the North and South, suspended trade, and produced widespread monetary embarrassments. The suspension, though it came suddenly upon the community, was generally regarded as unavoidable, and was acquiesced in as a probably temporary inconvenience, which a favorable turn in the aspect of political affairs might render of only short duration. The large manufacturing interests of Philadelphia, on the other hand, did not feel the effects of the crisis until some time after the election. The Public Ledger of November 27th said,
"The present financial and political derangement of affairs does not seem to affect the large manufacturing interests of Philadelphia to any great extent. At least most of those we visited yesterday have their usual number of men employed, and are receiving orders and remittances from the South. . . .Some of the large manufacturers of furniture, which is sold to dealers in the South, have been somewhat affected, but as yet only a few men have been discharged. . . . The manufacturers of carriages, which are sold at wholesale to the South, feel the effects of the pressure considerably, but not to such an extent as yet as will be likely to lead to a general discharge of hands, for there are still orders arriving."
Thursday, November 29th, was observed as Thanksgiving Day in Philadelphia with the usual services in the churches. Among the sermons preached on this occasion was a discourse by Rev. E.W. Hutter, on "The Blessings of the Union," delivered in St. Matthew's Lutheran Church, New Street below Fourth. Rev. W.T. Brantley preached at the First Baptist Church, corner of Broad and Arch Streets, on the causes of the political troubles with which the country was afflicted. In the afternoon there was a parade of military organizations.
At a meeting of manufacturers and business men of Philadelphia and vicinity, held at the Manufacturers' Exchange on the 1st of December, W. Blakely, of Delaware County, presiding, it was decided, in view of the business depression, to recommend to manufacturers of cotton and woolen goods that they should run their mills at half time until increased sales or reduced stocks justified full-time production once more. A resolution was also adopted to the effect that the longer selling of domestic dry-goods on eight and ten months' credit was impolitic.
In the Select Council, on the 6th of December, Mr. Drayton offered the following:
"Whereas, There is great reason to fear that there is serious peril of the dissolution of the Union of these States, under whose protection we have grown to be a great and prosperous nation, and it is fitting that the citizens of Philadelphia, that city in which the great principles of the Union were first embodied and promulgated, should in some suitable way express their love for the Union and their devotion to its perpetuation, and to the strengthening of those bonds which unite us, whether of the North or the South, the East or the West, as one great and united people; therefore,
"Resolved, By the Select and Common Councils of the city of Philadelphia, that the mayor of the city be, and he is hereby requested by his proclamation, to invite our fellow-citizens who love the Union to assemble at the old State-House, at twelve noon of a day to be appointed for the purpose, there to express their attachment to the Constitution of the United States, and their love for the Union which it creates and protects.
"Resolved, That a joint special committee, consisting of six members from each chamber of Councils, to which shall be added the presidents, be appointed to co-operate with the mayor in such arrangements as may be proper in their judgment by way of preparation for such meeting."
The resolutions were adopted by a unanimous vote. In Common Council, after a prolonged discussion, the resolutions, as they came from Select Council, were passed by a vote of fifty-three to sixteen.
It having been announced that George William Curtis would deliver an abolition lecture before the People's Literary Institute on the 13th of December, intimations were given out that if the lecturer attempted to speak there would be a disturbance, and it was said a mob had been organized to break up the assemblage. In consequence of these reports, Mayor Henry addressed a letter to J.W. White, chairman of the lecture committee of the institute, stating that the appearance of Mr. Curtis as a lecturer would be extremely unwise, and that if he possessed the lawful power he would not permit it. The lessee of Concert Hall, in which the lecture was to have been delivered, notified Mr. White that he had been informed officially that a riot was anticipated, and that, under the circumstances, he could not permit the hall to be used for the purpose indicated. The lecture was accordingly postponed.
In accordance with the resolutions of the City Councils, Mayor Henry issued a proclamation calling a meeting of citizens in Independence Square, "to counsel together to avert the danger which threatens our country." At the request of members of the bar who desired to participate, the courts adjourned over the day of meeting, and the navy-yard was closed by order of Commodore Stewart. The meeting was held on Thursday, December 13th, in the presence of an immense concourse of spectators, estimated to number fifty thousand persons. Charles B. Trego called the meeting to order, and nominated as chairman Alexander Henry, mayor of Philadelphia, who was received with cheers. William H. Drayton then read the following list of vice-presidents and secretaries:
Vice-Presidents, Samuel Breck, Charles Macalester, C.W. Poultney, William J. Duane, John B. Myers, John M. Irwin, Edward Cobs, Matthew Baird, Joseph Lea, Charles J. Ingersoll, John B. Austin, A.J. Boswell, David S. Brown, L.J. Leberman, Thomas Barnett, Robert Morris, Benjamin Gerhard, Pierce Butler,
T.T. Tasker, Sr., John Thomson, Robert Kelton, Anthony J. Drexel, Charles S. Coxe, John T. Smith, M. Robinson, V.L. Bradford, G.W. Toland, Gen. Robert Patterson, S.M. Felton, Robert Ewing, D. Rodney King, Peter A. Keyser, Josiah Randall, Edward S. Whelen, Wiliam Martin, Robert Steen, C.R. Moore, W.A. Blanchard, Dr. C.D. Meigs, E.G. Dutilh, Abraham Hart, J.B. Thomson, Elijah Dallett, Thomas H. Powers, John Robbins, Jr., Jasper Harding, George D. Rosengarten, Charles H. Fisher, John L. Goddard, Samuel V. Merrick, J. Eisenbrey, Jr., Stephen Colwell, Eli K. Price, J.H. Campbell, Charles N. Bancker, Dr. William Wetherill, Arthur G. Coffin, Archibald Campbell, Peter Sieger, Frederick Brown, Benjamin Rush, T.H. Dupuy, Captain James West, Richard C. Dale, Barton H. Jenks, F.A. Packard, H.C. Harrison, Col. Joseph S. Riley, John O. James, Frederick Fraley, S.T. Altemus, Isaac Lea, James V. Watson, J. V. McLean, Thomas Robins, A.S. Roberts, William B. Lejee, John S. Hart, John McCanless, David Jayne, Dr. W. Shippen, John Baird, T.E. Harper, James Dundas, J.B. Caldwell, Henry Rowland, H. Catherwood, George H. Stuart, Edward Dingee, Henry C. Carey, George Thompson, Dr. John Neill, George H. Martin, John Rice, Benjamin Rowland, Edward H. Trotter, William Struthers, Henry Bumm, James C. Hand, S.W. De Coursey, George Bartolett, Andrew C. Craig, William F. Hughes, John P. Levy, Isaac P. Morris, Edwin H. Fitler, Joseph Patterson, Peter McCall, G.B. Presbury, William Sellers, David P. Brown, J. B.P. Stevens, S.A. Mercer, G.H. Kirkham, Col. James Page, J.Phillips Montgomery, O. Campbell, Eli W. Bailey, J.B. Colahan, J.B. Lippincott, Hugh L. lodge, P. Williamson, A.L. Bonnafon, T.T. Tasker, Jr., C.J. Wolbert, John Childs, John Welsh, J.C. Mitchell, E.P. Middleton, Isaac Jeans, David Samuel, C.H. Rogers, Gen. W. Duncan, Jules Hauel, Robert Wood, Caleb Cope, Moses Thomas, F.B. Warner, Dr. James Bond, Frederick Fairthorne, William Cramp, Nathan Roland, J. Hansworth, Richard Price, St. George Tucker Campbell, George Trott, H.R. Coggeshall, J.Wainwright, Asa Whitney, J. Rodman Paul, A.G. Waterman, Joseph B. Mitchell, Thomas Smith, M.S. Shapleigh, John Grigg, Joseph A. Clay, Alexander Brown, Lemuel Coffin, Dr. S. Thomas, Charles Harmer, D. Solomons, Edward Hoopes, Arad Barrows, D.B. Cummins, Thomas Rowland, Benjamin Lehman, J.C. Cresson, William Divine, S.S. Bishop, Col. John G. Watmough, David Faust, P.V. Savery, D.C. Enos, John Passmore, Dr. J. Pancoast, James Dunlap, Francis Cooper, Isaac Koons, Samuel Moore, W. R. Thompson, William B. Bement, Albert Benton, Francis King, Henry Croskey, James B. Campbell, Benjamin F. Huddy, Joseph Ripka, A.G. Cattell, William B. Taylor, Daniel Smith, Jr., Commodore Charles Stewart, Benjamin Etting, William D. Lewis, George K. Zeigler, B.H. Brewster, Gen. Cadwalader, William C. Ludwig, F.J. Dreer, Charles Megarge, William Welsh, F.G. Smith, Charles J. Biddle, Edward C. Dale, James S. Smith, Henry Simons, W.L. Springs, Thomas S. Newlin, S. Morris Waln, John Jordan, Jr., B.H. Rand. The secretaries were Conrad S. Grove, Joseph F. Tobias, J.F. Johnston, Charles Wheeler, S.W. Arnold, B.C. Mitchell, Chapman Biddle, J. Bonsall, A.J. Holman, Coleman Fisher, C.A. Yeager, W. Sargent, M.D., G.W. Hacker, John M. Collins, T.A. Barlow, Benjamin Patton, Dr. John Gegan, W.D. Cozzens, T.C. Wood, J.Murray Rush, C. Pierce, W.D. Lewis, Jr., J.B. Montgomery, B.W. Richards, Benjamin S. Riley, R.P. Kane, H. Samuel, James D. Keyser, J.D. Sergeant, E.A. Hendry, L.N. Brognard, M.J. Micheson, G. Townsend, Gen. W.M. Reilly, C.W. Littell, E.S. Amer, William Sergeant, W. Clifford, J.C. Fryer, J. Ballenger.
Right Rev. Dr. Potter, Protestant Episcopal bishop of Pennsylvania, at the invitation of Mayor Henry, delivered a prayer, in which he petitioned that "a double portion of the wisdom and patriotism of the fathers" might "descend and rest upon their sons, that from this place there may go forth an influence which will be felt throughout the republic, an influence which will tend to the healing of the waters of strife and discord, and to the bringing back to our distracted land the reign of unity and concord." Mayor Henry then delivered an address, in which he stated that the people of Philadelphia were now called upon to avow their unbroken attachment to the Union and their steadfast determination that no honest effort should be left untried to preserve its integrity. John B. Myers read a series of resolutions proclaiming the attachment of the people of Philadelphia to the Union, pledging that every statute in force in Pennsylvania, if there were any such, invading the constitutional rights of a sister State, should be repealed, recognizing the obligations of the act of Congress of 1850, commonly known as the fugitive slave law, pointing "with pride and satisfaction" to the recent punishment and conviction in Philadelphia of those who had broken the provisions of the fugitive slave law, by aiding in the attempted rescue of a slave, as proof that Philadelphia was faithful in her obedience to the law; recommending to the Legislature of Pennsylvania the passage of a law giving compensation in case of the rescue of a slave by the county in which such rescue occurred; acknowledging and submitting "obediently and cheerfully" to the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States as to the recognition of slaves as property and the rights of slave-owners in the Territories; declaring that "all denunciations of slavery as existing in the United States, and of our fellow-citizens who maintain that institution and who hold slaves under it, are inconsistent with that spirit of brotherhood and kindness which ought to animate all who live under and profess to support the Constitution of the American Union; "cordially approving the suggestion that a convention of delegates from the several States be held for the purpose of suggesting remedies for the dangers that menaced the Union, and appealing to those Southern States which were considering the question of seceding from the Union to forbear and not destroy "so great and so fair an inheritance." Speeches indorsing the resolutions were made by Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll, Judge Woodward, Charles E. Lex, Theodore Cuyler, and Isaac Hazlehurst, after which S. Benton offered a resolution, which was adopted, that the presiding officer appoint a committee of three citizens to prepare a report of the proceedings and provide for its widest possible circulation throughout the Union.
The demonstrations in behalf of union and peace were not confined to the mass-meeting. Nearly all the wholesale stores and many of the retail stores on Second, Third, Market, Chestnut, and Eighth Streets were closed and decorated with flags. The Continental Hotel displayed three large American flags. The balcony was draped with the national colors, and along the front of the building was exhibited the motto "Concession before Secession." A number of private dwellings were decorated with bunting, and attached to the horses and cars of the street railway lines were small streamers of red, white, and blue. On the 15th it was announced that Mayor Henry had been deputed to transmit the resolutions adopted by the meeting and reports of the speeches to the authorities of South Carolina.
On the 14th of December a meeting of the Twenty-second Ward Democratic Association was held in Germantown, which also included "friends of the Union irrespective of party." Benjamin Rush presided. George W. Wolf offered, a series of resolutions, which were adopted, approving the measures recommended by the Union meeting in Independence Square, and cordially responding "to all the inspiring proceedings and patriotic resolutions of the great Union demonstration." A resolution offered by C.W. Littell was also adopted, commending Governor Hicks, of Maryland, for "his declination to convene the Legislature of his State for the purpose of adopting measures preparatory to her secession from the Union." A. King having been called to the chair, the president, Benjamin Rush, offered a series of resolutions, which were unanimously adapted, declaring that the meeting could give "no countenance to the extraordinary doctrine lately set up, that this great Union possesses no power to maintain its integrity," and that it contemplated with infinite pain the projected secession of South Carolina, hoping, however, that she would not put it out of her power to retrace her steps. Addresses on behalf of the Union and conciliation, and in favor of securing the just and coequal rights of all the States, were delivered by Mr. Rush, John S. Littell, Henry Flanders, Emmanuel Rey, and Samuel Johnson.
December 18th it was announced that Mayor Henry had selected S. Benton, J. B. Lippincott, and J.S. Newlin as a committee to attend to the distribution of the pamphlet containing a report of the proceedings of the Union mass-meeting.
Desiring to obtain a parade-ground for the troops under his command, Gen. Patterson, who was then major-general First Division Pennsylvania Volunteers, made application early in the fall of 1860 to the City Councils for permission to use the arsenal lot. The Councils referred him to City Solicitor Charles E. Lex, and a number of letters passed between Gen. Patterson and Mr. Lex, which were published in the newspapers of Jan. 2, 1861. The lot in question had been conveyed by the city of Philadelphia to the State of Pennsylvania as the site for an arsenal, but had been rented by the adjutant-general to the Western Market Company. It was alleged that the adjutant-general had acted without authority and in violation of the agreement between the city and State. Gen. Patterson applied to City Solicitor Lex to know what steps could be taken to recover possession, and Mr. Lex replied that the only remedy he could suggest was the placing of a fence around the square by the military, and if the market company attempted to tear it down, the bringing of an action of trespass against them to test the right of the adjutant-general to make the lease complained of Mr. Lex's advice did not satisfy Gen. Patterson, who, in a rather caustic letter, said, "I cannot bring myself to believe that when Councils referred my communication to the City Solicitor, they intended that officer to tell the military to put up a fence around the arsenal yard, to employ men to watch for the person who tore the fence down, and whose butcher, huckster, or fish wagons were put on the arsenal yard or lot, and that then when this was ascertained, that the military or the major-general was to employ counsel, commence an action for trespass against the offenders, waste his time and dance attendance at courts in a controversy with persons who never had a transaction with him, and who, when he got a verdict, would probably not be able to pay the costs, and all this to test the right of the adjutant-general to make the lease complained of." He added that if it was Mr. Lex's opinion that the Councils intended, in referring his complaint to him (Lex), "that the military should incur the expense and trouble of protecting the public interests and property," he would thank him to say so. On the 26th of December, after the lapse of some weeks without action on the part of the City Solicitor, Gen. Patterson again wrote to the City Councils, stating that, having been disappointed in the hope that the City Solicitor would take measures to protect the interests of the city and have the fence removed by the market company replaced, as the lot was required for storing certain articles and for the use of the men under artillery instruction, he would make application to those bodies for the necessary action to have the lot fenced in.**
On the 3d of January, Captain C.M. Berry, of the Minute-men of '76, fired three salutes of thirty-three guns in honor of Maj. Anderson, the commander at Fort Sumter, S.C., one at two o'clock at the corner of Broad and Spring Garden Streets, one at three o'clock at Broad and Prime Streets, and one at Reed Street wharf. After the firing three cheers were given by the spectators for Maj. Anderson. A salute of thirty-three guns was also fired by the Shuffler Hose Company in front of their house.
On the evening of the same day a meeting was held at the Board of Trade rooms, mainly representative of the mercantile interests of the city, at which reports were received from the district committees charged with the work of procuring signatures to a memorial to the State Legislature praying for the repeal of certain sections of the statutes relating to the return of fugitive slaves, and also "asking for the repeal of any former legislation which might be deemed unfriendly to our Southern brethren." During the meeting it was stated by Marcellus Mundy that the memorialists were likely to be misunderstood, as from the memorial it might be made to appear that they desired the repeal of the law against kidnapping. They desired no such repeal, and Mr. Mundy suggested that the sections of the law which were desired to be repealed should be printed and sent to the Legislature along with the memorial.
On the 4th of January a meeting composed of about one hundred and fifty leading citizens of Philadelphia was held at the Board of Trade rooms,
Chestnut Street above Fifth, in pursuance of a call signed by C.G. Childs, Henry C. Carey, M. McMichael, Edward G. Webb, Charles Gilpin, Ellis Lewis, C.C. Lathrop, Lewis C. Cassidy, William D. Lewis, William H. Kern, and Daniel Dougherty. In the call it was stated that the object of the meeting was to consider "what measures should be adopted by the citizens of Philadelphia in the present condition of our national affairs to aid the constituted authorities of the State and general government in the enforcement of the laws, to remove all just ground of complaint against the Northern States, and to secure the perpetuity of the Union." On motion of Sheriff William H. Kern, C.G. Childs was called to the chair, and Lewis C. Cassidy, who had acted as secretary of a previous meeting, was, at the suggestion of Charles Gilpin, appointed secretary. In taking the chair Mr. Childs said that a few days before some half-dozen or more gentlemen had met at that place
"to talk over matters, and ascertain, if possible, the best course to be pursued, and it was agreed that each should make inquiries among his circle of friends and acquaintances, in order that when they again met, by comparison they might ascertain what the sentiments of the people of Philadelphia were." The speaker expressed the hope that they would be able to present a united front, and that the measures adopted by the meeting would be in accordance with those patriotic feelings which ought to govern a State in which the Declaration of Independence was adopted and promulgated." In conclusion he said,
"Let our action here today show that we are determined to uphold and strengthen the administration of the government, and to put down disunion and everything that looks like a separation of this glorious confederacy."
Hon. Ellis Lewis, who had signed the call for the meeting, followed Mr. Childs, with the request that his name be stricken from the call, as he found that his views did not agree with those of some of the other gentlemen, and he feared that, if urged, they might disturb the harmony of the meeting. The president replied that an effort had been made to bring together gentlemen of all political parties in order that a free interchange of opinion might be had, and he hoped Judge Lewis would remain and give the benefit of his counsel. C.C. Lathrop also urged Judge Lewis not to withdraw, and Daniel Dougherty called attention to the fact that as the motion of Chief Justice Lewis to have his name stricken from the call had not been seconded, it was not before the meeting, and he hoped he expressed the unanimous wish that he would remain and take part in the deliberation. If not considered discourteous he would offer a series of resolutions, with the request that they be referred to a committee, with the exception of one, on which he desired immediate action. This resolution was as follows:
"Resolved 4, That we heartily approve the conduct of Maj. Anderson, the gallant commander of the United States Fort Sumter, in Charleston Bay, and we thus express the unanimous feeling of our great State; and that we call upon the Federal authorities to furnish him such reinforcements as will convince him and the enemies of the republic that the laws are to be enforced at all hazards, and that resistance to these laws is treason, and will be punished as such."
The reading of the resolution was greeted with great applause, which was followed by cheers; when Judge Lewis said,
"Mr. President, allow me the pleasure of seconding that resolution." Mr. Dougherty then read the other resolutions, which declared, first,
"that there exists no right of peaceable secession, that secession is rebellion, and that the laws of the United States must be enforced by the proper authorities;" second,
"that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, and that the Union, like the Constitution, was intended to be perpetual, because it asserts no power of self-destruction, and provides for its alteration by a certain explicit mode;" third,
"that we will cheerfully sustain the Federal government in all honorable efforts to maintain the Constitution and enforce the laws, but that any refusal to do so ought to be punished by the impeachment of all the guilty parties;" fourth,
"that in view of the threatening aspect of public affairs, it is advisable that the military establishment of Pennsylvania should be put upon a new footing by the augmentation of the present regiments, and by such State legislation as will encourage all citizens to enroll themselves at once, either by increasing the present militia force or by an appropriation out of the public treasury;" fifth,
that "we heartily indorse the sentiments of the message of Governor Packer, as well as the speeches of Robert M. Palmer, Speaker of the Senate, and Elisha W. Davis, Speaker of the House, as to the propriety of Pennsylvania repealing any law that may be improperly construed to give offense to the rights of the people of any sister State;" and, sixth,
that "we call upon the senators and representatives of Pennsylvania in the Congress of the United States, without reference to party ties, to join in any honorable adjustment that will restore the ties of brotherhood that until recently have united all the people of the republic." Charles Gilpin moved that these resolutions be referred to a committee; but, before the motion was put, Judge Lewis offered another set of resolutions, to the effect that, as the people of the Southern States had "contributed their blood and treasure in the acquisition of the Territories equally with those of the other States," the principle which recognizes the rights of all the States to the same "is founded on the clearest equity, and ought to be supported by every good citizen, unless a satisfactory division line can be settled by an amendment to the Constitution;" that "it is equally clear that every constitutional right in the Territories, as elsewhere, ought to be protected by appropriate legislation;" that "every State is bound by the Constitution of the United States to aid in delivering up fugitive slaves to their owners, and all legislation which refuses such and throws obstructions in the way is unconstitutional, and ought to be repealed and substituted in accordance with the Federal duties of the respective States;" that "no State has a constitutional right to resist the laws of the Federal government by force, whether in the form of partial nullification or secession, and that such armed resistance is treason and rebellion, and should be put down by the naval and military power of the nation;" that "if the Northern States should be unwilling to recognize their constitutional duties toward the Southern States, it would be right to acknowledge the independence of the Southern States, instead of waging an unlawful war against them." Mr. Gilpin moved that all the resolutions be referred to a committee, and pending action in the matter addresses were made by William B. Mann, Hon. Charles Brown, and John W. Forney. Mr. Mann urged that the meeting take such action as would make plain the intention of the people of Philadelphia, after full justice had been done the people of the South, that "at all hazards and every sacrifice these people are to be preserved one people under the Constitution." Mr. Brown's speech was strongly pro-Southern in tone. He opposed coercion, and declared that if the people of the North could not do the people of the South justice and satisfy them that it was to their interest to remain in the Union, it was their duty to part from them in peace. If the Northern conquered the Southern States, he added, they "might hold them as conquered provinces, but they could not afterward be held as equals." Mr. Brown's remarks created great excitement and confusion, and toward the close were frequently interrupted. Mr. Forney claimed that the resolutions offered by Mr. Dougherty contemplated no attack upon the South, but simply meant that when the laws created in pursuance of the Federal Constitution had been resisted the power of the government came in force. "We do not propose," he added, "to go to South Carolina, or to any seceding State, for the purpose of compelling such State to come back into the Union. If she chooses to remain outside and deprive herself of the benefits of the government and does not interfere with it and destroy us, that is her loss. But when she attempts to set herself up in defiance of the law and to ruin Philadelphia and New York, to laugh at the authority of the President and to defy this great government, which has made us the proudest people at God's footstool, then the instinct of self-preservation comes in, and we will maintain the Constitution and enforce the laws. That is all." Mr. Forney said further that the people of the South were brothers, not savages, and he therefore proposed that every peaceable remedy should be exhausted, party platforms set aside, individual records cast to the winds, and that all should "unite in asking them to come back to us." On the other hand, if, after all possible concessions had been made, they continued to attack the laws, and showed their purpose to be the destruction of the government, he for one was ready "to go in such a cause, and to die in the last ditch in defense of my country." The question was then taken to refer all the resolutions to a committee to be appointed by the president, and it was agreed to. Mr. Ford offered a resolution that "Maj.-Gen. Patterson be requested to call a meeting of the officers of his division at the earliest practicable period, for the purpose of taking such measures as they may deem necessary to increase the force and make its efficiency equal to any emergency." This resolution was also referred to the committee, but leave was given Marcelllus Mundy to address the meeting in connection with the resolution. Mr. Mundy declared his devotion and the devotion of the Bell-Everett party, which he represented, to the Union, but deprecated any hostile collision between the two sections. Mr. Gibbons said that, as a Republican, he regretted the last resolution had been introduced, as the military arm of the government, if required for any purpose whatever, would be called upon by those in authority, and not by a miscellaneous assembly such as the one he was addressing. Mr. Ford then said that as his resolution had created more discussion than he anticipated, he would withdraw it. This announcement was greeted with cheers. Mr. Gibbons, continuing, said he was "sure there was no man in the room, or in this city, or in this commonwealth who contemplated so serious and frightful a resort as making war upon the fifteen Southern States. . . . At the same time he hoped that they would all be prepared, should the dread hour ever come, to stand by the constituted authorities in the maintenance of the laws and the preservation of the Union." J. Murray Rush called attention to the fact that the meeting had forgotten in the midst of its patriotic deliberations to pay a tribute to the gallant conduct of Governor Hicks, of Maryland, who, placed in a delicate and trying position as the executive of a border slave State, had shown himself to be calm, manly, and intelligent in the present crisis. Mr. Rush therefore proposed the following:
"Resolved, That we have observed with admiration, and approve to the fullest extent the bold and patriotic course of the enlightened Governor of Maryland, Thomas H. Hicks; that it entitles him to the cordial support of every lover of the Union, and if persevered in will give him an enviable name on the page of American history."
The resolution was adopted, and the meeting adjourned. A few minutes later, while the gentlemen who had composed the meeting were still conversing, a telegraphic dispatch conveying the news that Maj. Anderson was besieged at Fort Sumter by the forces of the disunionists was received and read. Great feeling was occasioned by this intelligence, and a call for a public meeting to be held at Independence Square was immediately prepared and signed by those present. "Whatever differences may have taken place," said a newspaper at the time, "in reference to other matters, there was but one sentiment on this subject, that was, admiration for Anderson and hostility to all his foes. Among those who signed the call were Democrats, Republicans, and Americans." In the same journal it was announced that a subscription had been set on foot to purchase a sword of honor to be presented to Maj. Anderson in acknowledgment of his patriotic conduct at Charleston." Pending the appointment of a committee for the purpose, Joseph Curtis of the Orleans House, Chestnut Street, received subscriptions.
In accordance with the recommendation of the President of the United States, Friday, January 4th, was observed as a fast day in Philadelphia. In many churches special services were held. Sermons were preached at St. Stephen's Protestant Episcopal Church, by the rector, Rev. Dr. Ducachet; at the Arch Street Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Dr. Wadsworth; at St. Matthew's Lutheran Church, by Rev. E.W. Hutter; at the Third Baptist Church, by Rev. Reuben Jeffrey; at the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Epiphany, by Rev. T.W. Cracraft; at the Moravian Church, corner of Franklin and Wood Streets, by Rev. A.A. Reinke; at the Presbyterian Church, corner of Broad and Sansom Streets, by Rev. John Chambers, and at a number of other churches, at all of which, with one or two exceptions, the dangers threatening the country were alluded to. At Reed Street wharf the Shiffler Hose Company fired a salute of thirty-three guns in honor of the State of Delaware, which had rejected the proposals of the secessionist commissioner, Mr. Dickinson, and the citizens of Manayunk fired a similar salute in honor of Maj. Anderson. Some stores and all the public offices were closed.
"The anticipations of a war with the secessionists are so fully realized in many minds," said a Philadelphia newspaper of January 5th,
"that we are informed of grand propositions on the part of certain boat-builders and ship captains in this city to inaugurate privateering expeditions so soon as hostilities shall commence. It was reliably rumored yesterday afternoon that most of the coasting vessels now leaving this city are armed with cannon and ammunition."
On the evening of Saturday, January 5th, a meeting, in accordance with the call, to sustain Maj. Anderson, was held at National Hall, on Market Street, below Thirteenth. A number of patriotic inscriptions were displayed on the walls; among them, in front of the gallery, the memorable words of Henry Clay,
"So long as it pleases God to give me a voice to express my sentiments, or an arm, weak and enfeebled as it may be by age, that voice and that arm will be on the side of my country, for the support of the general authorities and the maintenance of the powers of the Union." Along the front of the platform were displayed the American flag and Webster's sentiment; "The Union, now and forever; one and inseparable." In the rear of the platform, extending across the room, were the following: "'Frown indignantly on the first dawning of an attempt to alienate one portion of the Union from another,' Washington;" and "'The Union must and shall be preserved,'
Jackson." A band of music, stationed in the gallery, played a number of popular airs, and just before the organization of the meeting the following sentiments were proposed by different persons in the assemblage and greeted with enthusiasm: "The Star Spangled Banner," three cheers and a "tiger;" "The Union," nine cheers; "Major Anderson," nine cheers; "General Scott," six cheers; "James Buchanan," three cheers; "Senator Crittenden," three cheers; "Governor Hicks, of Maryland," six cheers; "The State of Delaware," three cheers. "After this demonstration," says a contemporary account, "the band was called upon for 'Yankee Doodle,' and the scene which took place as it was played baffles description." Lewis C. Cassidy called the meeting to order, and announced that those present had been invited, without regard to party proclivities, "to meet for the purpose of taking into consideration the situation of that patriot soldier of Charleston, Maj. Anderson." At Mr. Cassidy's suggestion William D. Lewis was chosen to preside. In taking the chair Mr. Lewis said the meeting was one of the most important that had been held in Philadelphia since the Declaration of Independence, and that it had been called "for the purpose of declaring our determination to support the Federal authorities in any measures they may take to support Maj. Anderson, that gallant man who at present represents our government in the harbor of Charleston, and all other measures calculated to prevent the entire overthrow of all law and order." Mr. Lewis denounced the late Secretary of the Treasury, Howell Cobb, and the late Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, as "perjurers and traitors," and said he trusted that "for once this great city, with one voice and one heart, will send forth its hearty greetings to the brave defenders of their flag, and sustain the government in every act which, it may deem necessary to take to support those noble soldiers who are now, in point of fact, the impersonation of the Union itself." John W. Forney then came forward and read the list of officers, being frequently interrupted by applause as he uttered the name of some popular favorite, the name of Commodore Stewart, or "Old Ironsides," as he was generally called, eliciting three cheers:
President, William D. Lewis; Vice-Presidents, Commodore Charles Stewart, Morton McMichael, Maj.-Gen. Robert Patterson, John W. Forney, John M. Read, Richard Vaux, William Strong, Charles Gilpin, Joseph R. Ingersoll, William D. Kelley, Evans Rogers, Daniel Dougherty, W.M. Meredith, John Grigg, J. Murray Rush, John B. Myers, Edward Coles, Lewis C. Cassidy, Edward C. Knight, Marceilus Mundy, George W. Nebinger, William B, Mann, George M. Stroud, William Duane, Joseph Allison, Robert Hare Powel, Samuel B. Stokes, J.I. Clark Hare, Peter C. Ellmaker, Oswald Thompson, William Sergeant, Henry C. Carey, William A. Porter, James Landy, Frederick Stoever, Charles Gibbons, John Hazeltine, John C. Knox, William H. Kern, William A. Babcock, Thomas Smith, Alexander J. Derbyshire, William B. Thomas, Jacob W. Goff, Henry Horn, John B. Austin, John Dallett, Algernon S. Roberts, George K. Zeigler, Robert P. King, William Wister, Edward G. Webb, James Verree, John Campbell (Seventh Ward), C.B. Trego, Thomas Webster, Jr., Thompson Westcott, Gibson Peacock, Isaac Hazlehurst, Henry Bumm, R.M. Foust, Cephas G. Childs, Andrew C. Craig, Edward Gratz, C.C. Lathrop, Evan Randolph, Peter Lyle, B.J. Hincken, Dr. C. Herring, David M. Lyle, Samuel Field, G.P. McLean, John M. Butler, William S. Smith, William B. Lehman, A.G. Buckner, Thomas Potter, Charles M. Neal, William F. Hughes, George Wunder, William Elliott, Ludlam Matthews, Hiram Miller, John Porter, James Traquair, William McMullen, George A. Coffey, William Bradford, John H. Bringhurst, Edward King, Lindley Smith, R.T. Carter, William Sellers, Aubrey H. Smith, William Dwight, Jr., S.V. Merrick, James V. Watson, John K. Laughlin, Nathan Roland, Charles McDonough, Thomas J.Potts, J. McCahen, George Erety, William McGlensey (Third Ward), George Megee, J.E. Addicks, James Magee, E.W. Clark, Albert D. Boileau, Benjamin Gerhard, Francis Wolgamuth, Henry J.Williams, George H. Berrell, Samuel Bispham, Charles A. Rubicam, William 0. Kline, William Laughlin, A.L. Crawford, Samuel C. Perkins, John Devlin, John Kline, John K. Gamble, Andrew Noble, Henry Crilly, Charles R. Able, Captain Becker, Alexander T. Dickson, Peter Fassel, Joseph Enue, Theodore Bucknor, George W. Thorn, James D. Whetham, William McCandless, Thomas Bosily, John 0. James, John Cloud, William Malone, William F. Small, Francis Warner, lieutenant Spear, Charles F. Miller, Samuel G. Ruggles, Adam Warthman, Joseph McGeary, William M. Haughey, Porter Ringwalt, Adam B. Walter, Horn B. Kneass, Aaron V. Gibbs, Frank Patterson, P. Barry Hayes, Charles M. Provost, Dr. David Jayne, George Northrop, Andrew M. Jones, William V. Wicht, Edward Buckley, Patrick McDonough, A.A. Gregg, G. Freytag, Charles Lorenz, John McArthur, Martin Shultz, Edward Wartman, Henry Conrad, John Alexander, Richard Garsed, John F. Hight, Joseph S. Lovering, John W. Jones, Eugene Ahern, Godfrey Metzger, John B. Colahan, Lorin Blodgett, William Richardson, William C. Ludwig, Geo, D. Wetherill, William C. Kent, Jas. Dundas, John Thompson, Joseph H. Brady, Thomas Biddle, Jacob B. Valentine, George Rush Smith, Dr. Andrew Nebinger, S.J. Christian, Dr. C.E. Kamerly, Chris. J. Hoffman, Levi T. Butter, Thomas Birch, James Gordon, James Devereaux, Dr. John J. Sinnickson, John McCanless, Benjamin Allen, George Boldin, Samuel S. Kelley, S.C. Morton, William C. Stotesbury, Charles E. Lex, A.R. McHenry, Andrew C. Barclay, A.I. Flomerfelt, John D. Taylor, William Moran, Thomas F. Parry, William D. Baker, J.G. Watmough, Marshall Sprogell, Gen. George Cadwalader, Henry D. Moore, John S. Keyser, E.A. Souder, Franklin A. Comly, Thomas H. Moore, C.C. Sadler, Joseph S. Riley, Sr., Joseph W. Byers, John W. Ryan, Henry Davis, Jesse Godley, Jonathan Palmer, J.K. Murphy, William S. Grant, Peter Fritz, Edwin Smith, Philip S. White, Henry D. Landis, H. Montgomery Bond, John Ashton, Jr., Joshua T. Owen, John Thompson, George H. Hart, A.C. Harmer, James W. Paul, Leonard Myers, A.J. Pleasonton, Benjamin Rush, C.J. Biddle, George W. Swearingen, John P. Kilgore, Wade Morris, Martin J. Croll, William P. Hacker; Secretaries, Dr. Eliab Ward, Samuel E. Slaymaker, John Davis Watson, James Freeborn, George T. Thorne, James Metcalf, George Inman Riché, William Strunk, John Goforth, Cyrus B. Newlin, Frank Johnson, Samuel Hart, James B. Sheridan, Ernest C. Wallace, Michael Dunn, Charles C. Wilson, William J. Gillingham, Joseph Herr, John J. Franklin, Henry Neill, Benjamin Huckle, Conrad Groves, Howard Ellis, Theodore T. Derringer, John L. Ringwalt, John O'Byrne, James Bateman, James D. Campbell, Dr. Francis R. Shunk, Joseph Loughead, Alfred P. Scull, Henry C. Baird, Harman Baugh, Henry Y. Smith, A.M. Walkinshaw, John H. Diehl, E.G. Waterhouse, C.H.T. Collis, E.G. Simpson, William D. Frismuth, J. Barclay Harding, Thomas B. Stotesbury, Pierce Archer, Jr., Jeremiah Nichols, Charles B. Miller, A.F. Hugh, Moses A. Dropsie, Thompson Reynolds, James P. Perot, William Shinn, Thomas Hart, John B. Adams, James W. Sagers, Joseph P. Loughead, E.N. Hallowell, Caleb H. Needles, John Getty, William S. Stewart, Theodore Beck, Henry Schellinger, Robert Burton, Richard G. Devereaux, Philip F. Kelley, Henry Lapsley, E.P. Kershaw, John C. Keffer, William R. Bray, Clement Tingley, Jr., N.B. Le Brun, George Burton, William C. McCammon, William F. Corbit, George M. Conarree, C. Willing Littell, Thomas M. Hall, Robert Coulton Davis, R.M. Batturs, Stephen Taylor, James Harper, Henry W. Napheys, Andrew McDole, Robert B. Cabeen.
When the list of officers had been read, John W. Forney introduced J. Murray Rush, who, after making a brief address, in which he urged the importance of extending a prompt and hearty support to the general government, offered a series of resolutions, declaring that the foresight, prudence, and energetic conduct of Maj. Anderson at Charleston merited the hearty approbation of the government and people of the United States, that it was the imperative duty of the President to provide Maj. Anderson with all the force he might require "for the successful defense of his present position;" that "all persons who wage war against the United States for the purpose of destroying the government established by our fathers, or for any other purpose whatever, and all who aid, counsel, sanction, or encourage them, can be regarded in no other light than as public enemies;" that the meeting would "sustain the President of the United States and the constituted authorities of the government in whatever measures they may adopt to support Maj. Anderson, and to maintain the supremacy of the Constitution and the laws of the United States;" and that "the flag of the Union is the property of the people, and whenever lawfully unfurled it must and shall be protected to the last extremity." The resolutions were greeted with nine hearty cheers, after which the band in the gallery struck up the "Star-Spangled Banner." Charles Gibbons seconded the resolutions offered by Mr. Rush, and stated that he had called on the venerable Horace Binney, with the request that he should preside at the meeting. Mr. Binney, however, declined on the ground that his advanced age exposed him to danger from the excitement of such a gathering. At the same time he declared that his heart was bound up in the Union, and expressed the opinion that nothing would overthrow the Union or materially curtail or enfeeble it, "if to the purity and energy of our forefathers we unite that coolness, calmness, and obedience to the Constitution we live under, which carried them to success in their day and generation." Mr. Binney's letter of declination was read to the meeting, and was greeted with cheers, after which Mr. Gibbons read an extract from Washington's address, pointing out the evils of factional spirit. The resolutions were then put and adopted. At the same time a large American flag was unfurled behind the speakers on the stand, and as it made its appearance was caught by those on the platform and so drawn down as to form a canopy above those on the stage. Marcellus Mundy then made a brief address, in the course of which he mentioned that Maj. Anderson and himself were natives of the same State, Kentucky. Morton McMichael thereupon proposed three cheers for Kentucky, which were given with a will. At the conclusion of Mr. Mundy's remarks the meeting adjourned. An immense assemblage gathered outside the hall, to which the resolutions were read. A number of speeches were also made, "which were all well received, it only being necessary to utter the most commonplace Union sentiment to call forth the greatest applause."
- On the same day (January 5th) an adjourned meeting of citizens was held, without distinction of party, at the Board of Trade rooms, to receive the report of the committee on resolutions appointed at a previous meeting. Joshua T. Owen called the meeting to order, and Cephas G. Childs was chosen to preside. Judge Lewis moved that his resolutions offered at a former meeting be adopted; but the chairman ruled the motion out of order, as no report had been received from the committee. The meeting then adjourned in the midst of great confusion and angry demonstrations on the part of individuals toward each other; and David S. Winebrener moved that a new meeting be organized by calling Judge Ellis Lewis to the chair. Judge Lewis moved toward the chair, but Mr. Blodget, secretary of the Board of Trade, announced that he had been instructed by the board to forbid the use of the room for any political meeting. Judge Lewis, however, took the chair amid great excitement. William B. Mann suggested that all favorable to the original call for the meeting which had just been adjourned, and whose object was to sustain the laws and the American flag, should retire from the room. This suggestion, however, was not acted upon. Daniel Dougherty made an earnest appeal for order, and Marcellus Mundy, after stating it was not the object of those present to break up the meeting, added that in order to meet the exigencies of the situation he would offer a series of resolutions. Mr. Mundy thereupon offered resolutions to the effect that "in the opinion of the citizens of Philadelphia, irrespective of party, the spirit of compromise which characterized the labors of the framers of the Constitution should pervade our national council and influence the action of the people's representatives in settling the difficulties which now threaten the dissolution of the Union and make civil war imminent;" that "the heedless legislation of some of the Northern States in passing personal liberty bills, which would interfere with a proper exercise of the constitutional rights of the slave-holding citizens of Southern States, is to be deprecated as not only an unwise and unconstitutional assumption of power, but as an abnegation of that comity and courtesy which should characterize the fraternal relations and intercourse of the several States of the Union with each other;" that "the renunciation by South Carolina of the duty she owes to the confederated government, and her avowed purpose to destroy the Union by withdrawing there from, is in utter disregard of the rights of her sister confederates, and a mad sacrifice which should be prevented, as it can, through such pacific measures as will appeal to the patriotism of her people and her sense of right; induced by a generous sacrifice of Northern prejudice against the institution of slavery and a unanimous resolve to adopt as an honorable and at the same time the most practicable basis of compromise, the resolutions proposed by the Hon. John J. Crittenden in the Senate of the United States;" that "while pacific measures and compromises only should be resorted to to allay the fears and apprehensions and appease the resentment of an excited people, as the subjugation of one State, through the combined power of the other States of the Union, would be to deprive her of equality, and thus effectually destroy the constitutional Union of the States, the honor, property, and capital of our general government, if need be, should be preserved and protected by our national army and navy under the proper direction of the heads of government." Mr. Mundy's resolutions were adopted, the persons favoring the original meeting declining to vote for or against them.
On the evening of January 5th a meeting of natives of Maryland residing in Philadelphia was held for the purpose of approving the course of Governor Hicks in refusing to convene the Legislature of Maryland in obedience to the demands of the dis-unionists. S.W. De Courcy presided, and Tristram Bowdie acted as secretary. Resolutions warmly indorsing Governor Hicks' action were adopted. On motion of J.W. Kramer it was determined that a society similar to that of the Sons of New England should be organized, and that a festival should be held annually on the 12th of September, the anniversary of the battle of North Point. A letter from J. Murray Rush warmly indorsing Governor Hicks was read, and addresses were delivered by Charles B. Pottinger, Marcellus Mundy, and several others.
At a meeting of the Republican Invincibles, held on the same evening, Thomas M. Hall presiding, the resolutions adopted at the Union meeting at National Hall were read and adopted. A motion that the Invincibles organize into a military company was laid on the table, but resolutions deprecating any legislation at variance with the principles upon which the campaign had been fought and won, and recognizing "in its fullest extent the truth of Webster's great sentiment, that the will of the people, constitutionally expressed, is the supreme law of the land," and declaring that "the will of the people having been unequivocally expressed in the late election, it becomes the duty of all good citizens and Union-loving men to carry it into execution," were agreed to after considerable discussion.
Salutes were fired in honor of Maj. Anderson on the 5th by the Minute-men of '76, Captain Berry, and the members of the Independence Hose Company, on George Street between Second and Third.
On the 7th of January a meeting of citizens "opposed to war" and in favor of giving guarantees to the South was held at Barr's Hotel, on Sixth Street below Chestnut. Col. Isaac Leech was called to the chair, and John F. Gibson and Charles Leisenring appointed secretaries. On motion of Robert Palethorp it was determined that a mass-meeting of citizens opposed to the use of coercion in settling the difficulties with the South should be held on the evening of the 10th, at National Hall. Mr. Palethorp also offered a resolution indorsing the course of President Buchanan; but it was finally decided, after much discussion, that a committee should be appointed to prepare a set of resolutions to be presented to the public meeting.
At a meeting of the veterans of the war of 1812, held on the 8th of January at Independence Hall, a resolution was adopted invoking "the blessings of Divine Providence upon our beloved country in these times of peril and alarm, trusting most fervently that our prayer, going up as it does from this sacred place, will be answered, and that the whole people of the republic may live in good fellowship for all time to come." Col. Joel B. Sutherland, president of the association, made an address, in which he denied the right of any State to secede, but counseled moderation. "The occasion," he said, "might possibly be the last whereon the old soldiers would meet under the flag of all the States. He trusted in God that it would not be."
The meeting of citizens opposed to coercion, which was called for the 10th, was held on the afternoon of that day at Barr's Hotel, Vincent L. Bradford presiding. John McCarthy offered a resolution to the effect that it" would be unwise and inexpedient for those originating this meeting to make arrangements for a mass-meeting purporting to express the opinions of the Democracy of Philadelphia," but his motion, which created some disorder, was not adopted. A series of resolutions to be proposed at a mass-meeting were then read. They admitted the right of a State under certain contingencies to secede, and declared that in the event of secession on the part of the South, Pennsylvania would decide whether she would go "with fanatical New England or with the South, whose sympathies are ours." It was also asserted that neither the President nor Congress had power to declare war against a sovereign State.
The mass-meeting of the anti-coercionists was held at National Hall, on the evening of January 16th. Vincent L. Bradford called the meeting to order, and Charles Macalester was elected chairman. In his address on taking the chair, Mr. Macalester said that "the South should have remained loyal to the Union and fought the battle of the Union in the Union, but as they seem determined to go, let them go in peace, and let us say in a spirit of kindness and fraternal love, 'Let there be no strife between us, for we be brethren.'" "Let the Northern States," added Mr. Macalester, "before they commence fighting the South (for which some of them seem so anxious), repeal the odious and offensive nullifying acts called personal liberty' bills; let them discard the whole tribe of itinerant lecturers and demagogues who have been so eminently industrious in sowing discord throughout the land, and then let them resolve to mind their own business, and when this is done perhaps there will be no fighting to do." After Mr. Macalester had concluded, cheers were proposed and given for Maj. Anderson, President Buchanan, Gen. Scott, John J. Crittenden, and John C. Breckinridge. The name of Stephen A. Douglas was greeted with hisses. Robert P. Kane proposed a series of resolutions appealing "to the high sense of honor of the South not to turn away in anger from their steady friends, leaving them to the despotism of a sectional party flushed with victory, and which even the danger of disunion and civil war has not yet moved to conciliation," and declaring that among the most important features inculcated in the text-books of the Democratic party "is a strict construction of the Constitution of the United States, a sacred regard for the rights of each State to administer its own, domestic concerns, and an absolute non-interference, directly or indirectly, by the people of the several States with the domestic institutions of each other;" that had these principles been respected by the opposition party, the alienation of the North and South might have been avoided; that "the present difficulties in the country are principally attributable to the sentiment prevalent in the North against the moral, social, and political right of the citizens of any State in the confederacy to retain the African race in bondage;" that "the question of domestic slavery for the African race in any of the States of the Union is purely a question of political economy," and that the support of the institution, with such guarantees and protection for the slave as duty and humanity might suggest, did not in any way involve a question of religion or morals; that the common Territories belonged to all, and no right of property of any kind, recognized by a State, could be divested by Congressional action or intervention; that "the denial of this community of interests and the compressions of domestic slavery within its present limits, involves in our judgment, as a matter of right, a violation of the Federal compact, and has led to most pernicious results;" that each of the States was a sovereignty and possessed full power, subject to the Constitution of the United States, of legislating in such manner as might best comport with the interest of her citizens; that the Legislature of Pennsylvania should at once repeal all acts not consonant with a spirit of friendliness to the sister States, and should, by legislative enactments, "secure to the citizens of every State while within our limits as sojourners, and while coming to and going therefrom, ample protection for themselves and their property;" that any attempt to dissolve the Union should be looked upon with sorrow and alarm, but that "all conciliation failing, if the people of these States cannot live in harmony under the Constitution as it is, it should, by a general convention, be amended; and that failing, which we are loath to believe possible, acquiescence in peaceable separation is so far preferable to the horrors of civil war;" that it (the meeting) was utterly opposed to any such compulsion "as is demanded by a portion of the Republican party," and that the Democratic party of the North would "by the use of all constitutional means and with its moral and political influence, oppose any such extreme policy of a fratricidal war thus to be inaugurated;" that "we cordially approve the disavowal by the President, in his last annual message, for himself and for Congress, of the war-making power against a State of the confederacy;" that, "in the deliberate judgment of the Democracy of Philadelphia, and, so far as we know it, of Pennsylvania, the dissolution of the Union by the separation of the whole South, a result we shall most sincerely lament, may release this commonwealth to a large extent from the bonds which now connect her with the confederacy, except so far as for temporary convenience she chooses to submit to them, and would authorize and require her citizens, through a convention to be assembled for that purpose, to determine with whom her lot should be cast, whether with the North and East, whose fanaticism has precipitated this misery upon us, or with our brethren of the South, whose wrongs we feel as our own, or whether Pennsylvania should stand by herself as a distinct community, ready, when occasion offers, to bind together the broken Union and resume her place of loyalty and devotion;" that "we gladly acquiesce in the plan of compromise, embodied in the resolutions for amendment to the Constitution, offered in the Senate of the United States by Mr. Crittenden, and now pending before that body, as a proper basis for settlement of all existing difficulties;" and finally, that "we earnestly recommend our Democratic brethren in different cities and counties of this State and of New York and New Jersey, who agree with the views enunciated by this meeting, to take the earliest opportunity of holding mass-meetings in their respective localities." The reading of the resolutions was frequently interrupted by mingled applause and hisses. An attempt to introduce a series of adverse resolutions was made by Charles Gilligan, who, however, was ejected from the meeting. George M. Wharton then addressed the meeting, advising conciliation and opposing secession. He was followed by Charles Ingersoll, who, after making a few remarks in the same strain, was interrupted by cries for" Brewster" (Benjamin H. Brewster), the confusion finally becoming so great that the speaker was unable to continue. William B. Reed then made an earnest plea in behalf of peace and conciliation, claiming that he spoke the true sentiment of every one around him, "Nay, of all Pennsylvania, except those who, as technical Abolitionists, I count as outlaws." Benjamin H. Brewster, who was the next speaker, declared that the South had been wronged, which would never have happened had not the Democratic party been divided. The South had been too precipitate, but he thought the difficulty might be adjusted even yet if a policy of conciliation were adopted. William Neal, of Ohio, made the closing speech, and the meeting adjourned with cheers for the Union, Stephen A. Douglas, and Maj. Anderson.
In the newspapers of January 17th appeared the letter of William D. Lewis, chairman of the mass-meeting of January 5th, to Maj. Anderson, transmitting an account of the proceedings, and Maj. Anderson's reply, in which he expressed the hope that "by the blessing of God the impending political storm may be dispersed without bloodshed."
On Saturday evening, January 19th, a meeting of workingmen, without distinction of party, was held at Spring Garden Hall, Dr. A.L. Kennedy presiding, at which resolutions were proposed in favor of using every effort for the preservation of the Union and of repealing every "unconstitutional enactment" adopted by Northern States which had given offense to the South. The resolutions also called on Congress to take some action to allay agitation and excitement, and to restore confidence throughout the country, and indorsed President Buchanan's declaration of the right of the national government "to use military force defensively against those who resist the Federal officers in the execution of their legal functions, and against those who assail the prosperity of the United States." The first resolution, declaring in favor of resistance to all efforts to dissolve the Union, was adopted, but the second resolution, calling for the rescinding of unconstitutional enactments, was amended by the substitution of one indorsing the Crittenden Compromise. The consideration of the other resolutions was postponed, and, after a committee to arrange for a mass-meeting had been appointed, the meeting adjourned.
At a meeting of Marylanders residing in Philadelphia, held on the 22nd of January, J.M. Stevens presiding, and H. Hollyday secretary, the constitution of the proposed society, to be known as the Maryland Association, was adopted. The society was then organized by the election of the following officers Rev. J.W. Kramer president; M. Hall Stanton, vice president; J.M. Stevens, treasurer; H. Hollyday and J.D. Watson, secretaries; Thomas Watson, J.D. Watson, William B. McAtee, G.J. Naylor, and H. Dickson, executive committee.
During the visit of members of the Chicago and Milwaukee Boards of Trade, who arrived in Philadelphia on the morning of January 24th, a number of speeches were made at the reception and banquet given them in which earnest Union sentiments were expressed. At Independence Hall, Mayor Henry, in welcoming the visitors, expressed the hope that "ere long the fanaticism and treason that obscure the early pathway of our country's progress may be dissipated, and happiness again become the heritage of the whole people." At the banquet given by the United Trade Association on the 25th, Gen. Rufus King, responding to the toast "The Great Northwest," said that all the past and present of that section were bound to the Union, and proposed as a toast "The Locomotive and the Cannon, The iron that walks,
And the iron that talks.
With the one they could preserve the Union, with the other defend it against all enemies." The sentiment was received with cheers, and all present joined in singing the "Star-Spangled Banner." A.G. Cattell, president of the Philadelphia Corn Exchange, claimed that there was no power, native or foreign, capable of subverting the Constitution; and Commodore Charles Stewart, United States Navy (" Old Ironsides"), declared that the Constitution, like his own ship of that name, "might be sunk by her friends, but was never to be taken."
Charles Stewart, or "Old Ironsides," was born of Irish parents in Philadelphia, July 18, 1778. At the age of thirteen he entered the merchant service, in which he rose from the situation of cabin-boy to the command of an Indiaman. On March 9, 1798, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the navy, and in July, 1800, was appointed to the command of the schooner "Experiment," and cruised in the West Indies, where he rendered efficient service. On September 1st he captured the French schooner "Deux Aims," of eight guns, and soon after "The Diana," of fourteen guns, besides recapturing a number of American vessels which had been taken by French privateers. In 1802, as first officer, he joined the frigate "Constellation," which had been ordered to the Mediterranean to blockade Tripoli; and on his return, after one year's cruise, was placed in command of the brig "Siren." In this vessel he was engaged in the expedition sent to destroy the frigate "Philadelphia" on Feb. 16, 1804, and subsequently in the blockade and siege of Tripoli. For his services in the bombardment of Aug. 3, 1804, he received the thanks of Commodore Preble in general orders. Promoted to be master-commander on May 19, 1804, he was placed in command of the frigate "Essex," which joined the squadron in Tunis Bay, and subsequently took command of the frigate "Constellation." On April 22, 1806, he was made captain, and was employed in superintending the construction of gun-boats at New York. In December, 1812, Captain Stewart was again appointed to the "Constellation," and proceeded to Hampton Roads, where he assisted in defending Norfolk and Craney Island from the attacks of the British. In December, 1813, he sailed in command of the frigate "Constitution," in which, in February, 1815, he fell in with the British ships-of-war "The Cyane," of thirty-four, and "The Levant," of twenty-one guns, and captured them after a sharp conflict of forty minutes. "The Levant" was subsequently retaken by a British squadron, but the "Constitution" escaped with her other prize to St. Jago. On his return to America he was received with the highest honors. The Legislature of Pennsylvania presented him with a gold-hilted sword, and a gold medal was ordered to be struck by Congress. He commanded the Mediterranean squadron from 1817 to 1820, when he took command of the Pacific fleet. On his return home he was tried by a court-martial, but was honorably acquitted. He was a member of the board of navy commissioners in 183033, and in 1837 succeeded Commodore Barron in command of the navy-yard at Philadelphia. In 1857 he was placed on the reserve list on account of his advanced age, but in March, 1859, he was replaced on the active list by special legislation, and on July 16, 1862, was made a rear-admiral on the retired list. He rendered important service in the organization of the navy, and submitted to the department many valuable papers on the subject. He died greatly lamented at Bordentown, N.J., Nov. 7, 1869.
The mass-meeting of workingmen to take action on the political crisis was held in Independence Square on Saturday evening, January 26th. The following officers were chosen: President, Isaac W. Van Houton; Vice-Presidents, John A. Wallace, Alexander McPherson, George W. King, Eli Howell, A.V. Brady, Henry Clark, James Pugh, Joseph B. Hancock, John J. O'Connor, F.B. Smith, S.B. Whiting, Francis Reiley, George Widener, David Conrad, Hiram Gaston, William Cannon, Thomas Gibbs, Alfred A. Kennedy, George Hensler, Hiram Maxwell, Richard Newsham, John Hall, George Oat, William Morton, W. Wells, Passmore M. Collins, John Williamson, Thomas Clark, Joseph Travis, John A. Hughes, George Christy, Frank Walker, Thomas Christy; Secretaries, John A. Fulton, John Keesey, Robert J. Magee, Jonathan E. Fincher, John Curley, and John Call. Speeches were delivered by James B. Nicholson, Stacy Wilson, Henry A. Gilder, and J.J. Greenfield, urging moderation and a conciliatory policy, and resolutions were adopted in favor of the repeal of legislation obnoxious to the people of the South and deprecating collisions between the military force of the general government and the seceding States; but declaring that, after all fair and honorable means of reaching an amicable settlement had been exhausted, the workingmen of Philadelphia would sustain the government in all just and legal measures for enforcing the laws. The Crittenden Compromise was indorsed, and the committee of arrangements was authorized to appoint two delegates from each of the Congressional districts of Philadelphia to meet in convention on the 22nd of February, as recommended by the mechanics and workingmen of Louisville, Ky.
Hon. Simon Cameron, then United States senator from Pennsylvania, was serenaded at the Girard House on Saturday evening, January 26th, and, in acknowledging the compliment, declared that he was willing to make any reasonable concession, not involving a vital principle, to save the country from anarchy and bloodshed.
At a meeting of Kentuckians resident in Philadelphia, held on the 29th of January, Dr. S.D. Gross presiding, an address to Governor Magoffin, of Kentucky, stating that the people of the North would in time repeal all obnoxious laws and concede all reasonable demands, and a series of resolutions favoring conciliation and the Crittenden Compromise, were adopted.
The committee appointed by the meeting of workingmen, held on Saturday, January 25th, to present the resolutions passed at the meeting to the United States senators and representatives, and to the Pennsylvania Legislature, repaired to Washington and Harrisburg for that purpose, and on their return were received at the Pennsylvania Railroad depot by a large delegation from the principal machine-shops, and escorted to their headquarters with a band of music. A line was formed, and the procession, headed by a large lantern, which had inscribed on the face of it in large letters, "Welcome home,
committee," moved down Eleventh Street. After marching through several of the principal streets, the procession halted in front of the Wetherill House, on Sansom Street, where addresses were delivered by Messrs. Van Houton and Lowry. The former, in behalf of the committee, reported that they had been well received in Washington by the President of the United States and the senators from Pennsylvania, and that they had been assured by senators and representatives from the Southern States that the visit of the committee had had more effect upon Congress and the people of Washington than anything that had occurred in the course of the pending political agitation. In the House of Representatives the petition prepared by order of the mass-meeting had been received, read, and ordered to be printed. During their stay in Washington the members of the committee were introduced to Mr. Crittenden (author of the Crittenden Compromise). At Harrisburg the committee had received assurances from all the Philadelphia members of the Legislature, with but one exception, that they would do all in their power to secure the repeal of legislation injurious to the people of other States.
On the 9th and 10th of February quite a large assemblage was attracted to the wharf of the Reading Railroad Company, foot of Willow Street, by the presence of a large number of heavy cannon, together with several tons of shells. They had been transported from the Fort Pitt foundry, near Pittsburgh, and were destined for the Stevens Water Battery in the harbor of New York. In the excited state of public feeling special significance was attached to the accumulation of war material, and three cheers, proposed by one of the spectators, were given with a will.
On the 15th of February it was announced that Messrs. Hacker, Bradford, & Wetherill had been chosen by the special committee of Councils appointed to make arrangements for the reception of Hon. Abraham Lincoln, President-elect of the United States, to visit Cleveland for the purpose of presenting resolutions of the Councils inviting Mr. Lincoln to visit Philadelphia on his way to Washington. A committee of citizens was also appointed, which cooperated with the committee of Councils. The former committee adopted as a badge to be worn on the occasion of the President's reception a design comprising a spread-eagle, with the figures of Commerce and Agriculture under the wings. On their return from Cleveland the sub-committee of Councils reported to the committee that Mr. Lincoln had accepted the invitation. It was stated that Gen. Patterson had been called upon in reference to ordering but the First Division of volunteers to act as an escort to the President-elect, but that the general had declined to do so because there was no precedent for it, Mr. Lincoln not coming in an official capacity. At a meeting of the committee held on the 19th, Mr. Benton, from the sub-committee appointed to ascertain if the First City Troop would parade as a body-guard, reported that Captain James had been called upon, and had stated that he thought the Troop would be governed by the law of etiquette as laid down by Gen. Patterson. Captain James afterwards came in and said he had concluded not to order out the Troop, for the reasons which Gen. Patterson had given for not calling out the First Division. He had no feeling in the matter, and at another time would be glad to conform to the wishes of the authorities and citizens. At a meeting of the committee held on the 20th, it was resolved that the citizens residing on the route of the procession be requested to display flags and ensigns, and also that they be requested not to display any of a partisan character.
The reception of Mr. Lincoln on Thursday, February 21st, was an imposing demonstration. Many of the hotels and public buildings displayed bunting from their flag-staffs, and the city generally wore a holiday appearance. At two o'clock the members of Councils met at the hall, and the citizens' committee in the building opposite, preparatory to taking carriages for the depot. A salute fired by a detachment of soldiers under command of Captain Berry announced to the multitude assembled at the Kensington Depot the arrival of the train. The committee of Councils appointed for the purpose having met the President-elect at Trenton, there was no particular ceremony after the train entered the depot. The procession to escort the President-elect was formed in the following order: Policemen, mounted, under command of Chief of Police Ruggles, detachment of police on foot; Col. P.C. Ellmaker, chief marshal of the procession, and aids; Conrad B. Andress, marshal, and aids; cavalcade of citizens, James Freeman, chief marshal; Pennsylvania Dragoons, commanded by Maj. Charles Thomson Jones; the President-elect in a barouche drawn by four white horses, and accompanied by the chairman of the committee of Councils and the presidents of Select and Common Councils; suite of the President-elect; committees of the Legislatures of Pennsylvania and New Jersey and officers and members of the City Councils of Philadelphia, all in carriages. A guard of police was posted on the flanks of the carriages and moved with the procession. The streets through which the parade passed were densely thronged, and the assemblage at the depot was so great as to render the sidewalks almost impassable. As the procession was about turning into Girard Avenue salutes were fired from the cupola of the William Penn Hose-house, on Frankford road, which was gayly decked with flags and patriotic emblems. A large American flag floated over the building of the James Page Library Company, on Girard Avenue, below the Frankford road, and the front of the house of William P. Hacker, on Arch Street, near Broad, was festooned with three large American flags. An evergreen arch, decorated with American flags, extending across the street, was erected on Sixteenth Street, near Chestnut, under which the procession passed. Flags were also displayed from many private residences. Mr. Lincoln was loudly cheered all along the route, and frequently rose and acknowledged the greetings of the spectators. Several handsome bouquets were thrown into his carriage. When the procession reached the corner of Ninth and Walnut Streets the pressure of the crowd was tremendous. On Ninth Street from Walnut to Chestnut a strong force of police was stationed to keep the street clear; but at times its efforts was unavailing. The Continental Hotel, at which lodgings had been provided for Mr. Lincoln, soon became so crowded that it was found necessary to close nearly all the doors and to station policemen at them, in order to prevent the entrance of the thousands who surged toward them after the President-elect had entered. Mr. Lincoln soon after presented himself on the balcony of the hotel, and was greeted with prolonged cheering. A band stationed on the balcony struck up a lively air, at the conclusion of which the mayor of Philadelphia, Alexander Henry, tendered the hospitality of the city to Mr. Lincoln, who responded in a brief address. When he had concluded Mr. Lincoln retired to his apartments, and the vast assemblage slowly dispersed. A little after eight o'clock the President-elect took a position at the head of the grand stairway of the hotel, where he remained some time, in order to gratify the curiosity of those who wished to see him. About ten o'clock an arch of fire-works with the words, "Abraham Lincoln" in large letters in the arch, and the words, "The Whole Union" beneath it, was exhibited at Ninth and Chestnut Streets, extending across Chestnut.
Washington's birthday, February 22nd, was more generally observed in Philadelphia this year than for many years previous. The presence in the city of the President-elect, together with the ceremony of flag-raising at which it had been arranged he should assist, gave the celebration a more important character than ordinarily. From all the public buildings, hotels, shipping, newspaper offices, and engine and hose-houses the American flag was displayed, and a large number of private dwellings were decorated in a similar manner. At sunrise a national salute was fired, and at seven o'clock a committee of the City Councils waited upon Mr. Lincoln, who was escorted from the Continental Hotel to Independence Hall by the Scott Legion. On entering the hall Mr. Lincoln was formally received by Theodore Cuyler, president of Select Council, to whose address of welcome Mr. Lincoln briefly replied. After inspecting the portraits and relics in the hall, Mr. Lincoln was escorted to the platform in front of the building, where his appearance was the signal for long-continued cheering. Everything had been arranged for unfurling the new flag with thirty-four stars, the thirty-fourth representing Kansas, then recently admitted as a State. The flag was rolled into a ball in man-of-war style, so that when it reached the peak of the staff it should gradually unfurl to the breeze. The Scott Legion was drawn up in front of the platform. Mr. Benton, chairman of the joint committee of Councils, then said that he had been deputed to request Mr. Lincoln personally to raise the new flag with thirty-four stars, "the first elevated by the city government." Mr. Lincoln consented to perform the ceremony, signifying his acceptance of the invitation in a brief address, in which he said, "I think we may promise ourselves that not only the new star placed upon that flag shall be permitted to remain there to our permanent prosperity for years to come, but additional ones shall from, time to time be placed there, until we shall number, as was anticipated by the great historian, five hundred millions of happy and prosperous people." After prayer by the Rev. Henry Steele Clark, Mr. Lincoln grasped the halyards until the flag, having ascended to the peak of the flag-staff; was unfurled. The band played the "Star-Spangled Banner," which was followed by "The Stars and Stripes are Still Unfurled," a piece of music dedicated to Mrs. Robert Anderson, wife of Maj. Anderson, commander of Fort Sumter. During the ceremonies a detachment of the Washington Grays stationed in Independence Square fired artillery salutes. Great enthusiasm was exhibited by the spectators. Having performed the task allotted him, Mr. Lincoln returned to the hotel, and at half-past eight o'clock left in an open barouche drawn by four horses for West Philadelphia, where a special train awaited him. At this point a salute was fired, and a large assemblage witnessed Mr. Lincoln's departure for Harrisburg at half-past nine o'clock. The next feature of the day's celebration was that in which the City Councils took part. Both branches met in joint convention, being called to order by Mayor Henry, and repaired in procession to the platform in front of Independence Hall. Mayor Henry here stated that the object of their meeting there was to listen to the reading of Washington's Farewell Address by the Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll. Bishop Potter offered a prayer, in which he expressed the hope that Washington's words of warning and admonition might be heeded throughout the length and breadth of the land. Mr. Ingersoll was then introduced and read the address, which was attentively' listened to by the vast assemblage. The address was also read at the meeting of the soldiers of the war of 1812, which was held in the Supreme Court room on the same day, Hon. Joel B. Sutherland presiding, by Col. Robert Carr, who had carried a musket at a review of troops by Gen. Washington, and was the oldest of the survivors of the war of 1812. Resolutions were adopted by the meeting requesting Congress and the State Legislatures "to adopt such measures as will present to the people of the several States such amendments to the Constitution of the United States as will tend to secure peace and amity between the different States, and thus add new strength to our institutions and make our republic the continual admiration of the civilized world;" thanking Virginia "for coming to the rescue and holding out the olive branch of peace to the other commonwealths;" and expressing the hope that the Peace Congress would not adjourn until it had perfected some plan for the preservation of the Union. At Mechanics' Hall a large number of citizens assembled to do honor to the memory of Washington. The building was profusely decorated with flags, and at the back of the speakers' stand portraits of Washington and Commodore Decatur were exhibited. After the national hymn ("America") had been sung, Rev. J.E. Meredith offered a prayer. The choir then rendered the "Birth of Washington," after which the master of ceremonies, William B. Thomas, introduced the orator of the day, Rev. D.W. Bartine, who delivered a patriotic discourse. The day was also marked by an imposing procession of workingmen, representing the leading industrial establishments of the city. During the parade bells were rung at frequent intervals, and many beautiful flags, banners, and appropriate emblems were displayed, with inscriptions expressing fidelity to the Union. At National Hall a mass-meeting of workingmen was held. Isaac W. Van Houton presided. After Washington's Farewell Address had been read by James Blakeley, Mr. McPherson offered a series of resolutions demanding immediate action on the part of Congress, "either by the adoption of the Crittenden, Guthrie, or Bigler amendments, or by some other full and clear recognition of the equal rights of the South in the Territories;" opposing "any measures that will evoke civil war;" recommending the repeal of all acts of the Pennsylvania Legislature which were not consonant with a spirit of friendliness to sister States, and that the workingmen of Philadelphia hold their senators and representatives in Congress and in the State Legislature to "a strict account for the fulfillment of the promises made to the Workingmen's Committee of Thirty-three at Washington and Harrisburg;" and suggesting that the organization of the workingmen of Philadelphia should be maintained. In addition to the other observances of the day, there was a parade of the military organizations of the city, including the Minutemen of '76, Captain Berry, the Garde Lafayette, Captain Archambault, the Washington Grays, Captain Parry, the Philadelphia Grays, Captain Foley, and the Meagher Guards.
A national convention of workingmen began its sessions at the Wetherill House, Sansom Street, on the 23d of February. Delegates were present from Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Ohio, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. S.W. Cloyd, of Kentucky, presided. Resolutions deploring the sectional agitation which was disturbing the country, and indorsing the Crittenden Compromise, were adopted. J.B. Nicholson, of Pennsylvania, having been introduced to the meeting, presented the chairman, on behalf of the workingmen of Philadelphia, with a handsomely-bound copy of Washington's Farewell Address. A series of resolutions were offered by Mr. Touchstone, of Maryland, denouncing the "nabobs and aristocrats of the South and fanatics of the North," but having been objected to were withdrawn. On motion of Mr. Lawrence, of Virginia, it was determined to appoint a National Executive Committee consisting of three persons, with power to increase their number to thirty-four. The convention then adjourned.
At a convention of workingmen, composed of delegates from the different industrial works of Philadelphia, held at Spring Garden Hall, on the 4th of March, for the purpose of choosing delegates to a national convention to be held at Louisville, Ky., on the 4th of July, Joseph Christy was chosen president, J.M. Stephens vice-president, and Richard Flach secretary. An executive committee was appointed, which, on March 7th, organized by electing the following officers: President, I.W. Van Houton; Vice-Presidents, A.N. Macpherson and E.W. Fraley; Recording Secretary, John Hall; Corresponding Secretary, W.H. Sylves; Treasurer, W. Obdyke.
Hon. David Wilmot, senator-elect from Pennsylvania, and famous as the author of the Wilmot Proviso, arrived in Philadelphia on Saturday, March 16th, and stopped at the Continental Hotel, where he was serenaded by a number of his political friends. Mr. Wilmot acknowledged the compliment by making an address, in which he defined the principles that would guide his course in the Senate.
A meeting of the friends in Philadelphia of Hon. J.J. Crittenden was held on the 6th of March at the American Hotel. Dr. Alfred L. Elwyn was appointed chairman, and S.E. Cohen secretary. It was resolved that a committee of ten persons be appointed to confer with Mr. Crittenden "to ascertain when it would be convenient for him to visit Philadelphia, in order to afford its citizens an opportunity of manifesting their deep sense of approbation of the patriotic efforts made by him to maintain and perpetuate the union of these States." The committee, consisting of Hon. Joseph H. Ingersoll, Hon. Peter McCall, Hon. Edward King, Peter Williamson, James C. Hand, Dr. Alfred L. Elwyn, Robert H. Hare, John Hulme, J.E. Peyton, and Marcellus Mundy, wrote to Mr. Crittenden, who replied on the 17th, declining the invitation on account of having been called to his home in Kentucky.
At a meeting of the Workingmen's Committee of Thirty-four, which was held at the Wetherill House on the 19th of March, it was resolved that "the workingmen of Philadelphia do hereby recommend to all our fellow-workingmen of our common country to lay aside all political and sectional feeling, and to come out in the majesty of their power and show to political party tricksters and to the world that our country must and shall be preserved."
The action of the Pennsylvania Legislature in postponing the spring municipal election was the occasion of several political meetings in Philadelphia about this time. On the 20th of March the county convention of the Constitutional Union party met at the county court-house, George C. Collins presiding, and after electing S.H. Norris president, S.S. Sunderland secretary, and M.B. Dean treasurer, appointed a committee to draft resolutions denouncing the action of the Legislature, with instructions to report at a subsequent meeting. On the 21st the Minutemen of '76 appointed a committee, consisting of H.F. Knight, James W. Martin, F.S. Altemus, H.C. Laudenslager, and W.J. McMullen, to confer with committees of other associations as to the propriety of holding a mass-meeting to protest against the action of the Legislature. The Democratic City Executive Committee characterized the act as an "outrage perpetrated by the Black Republican majority in the State Legislature," and appointed a committee to consult counsel as to its legality.
Early on the morning of March 26th a secessionist flag was found flying from a pole in front of the "Jolly Post," in Frankford, and soon attracted a large crowd. It was finally taken down, and the assemblage dispersed.
A meeting of the Constitutional Union convention was held on the 27th of March, I.H. Norris in the chair, at which resolutions were adopted declaring it inexpedient at that time to attempt to test the constitutionality of the late act of the Legislature by which the spring election had been postponed until the fall, and that the time had come when those "who love their country for their country's good must unite in beating down under foot the fell spirit of disunion, anarchy, corruption, and fanaticism."
On the 29th of March an opinion was published of City Solicitor Charles E. Lex, rendered in compliance with a request from City Councils, affirming the constitutionality of the act of Legislature abolishing the spring election for municipal officers.
During the annual session of the Philadelphia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church the Committee on the State of the Church, to which was referred the subject of the repeal of the new chapter on slavery inserted into the "Discipline" by the General Conference, reported March 29th, concurring in the resolutions of the East Baltimore Conference requesting the General Conference at its next session to repeal the chapter on slavery, and instead thereof, empower each annual Conference within whose bounds the institution exists "to make such regulations upon this subject as in their judgment may best subserve the interests of the Redeemer's kingdom among them." The committee also recommended the adoption of an address to the members of the church in Delaware and on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. The address assured them that they had the profoundest sympathies of the Conference in their disquietude and agitated condition, and that no exertions should be wanting to secure them redress for their grievances and to maintain their ecclesiastical rights in and under the constitution of the church. It also declared that the change in the church discipline introduced by the chapter on slavery was entirely uncalled for, "highly offensive to our brethren on the border, and lamentably injurious to the welfare of the church among them," and ought to be repealed. The committee also reported that "in view of our present national difficulties and embarrassments, and the consequently disturbed condition of the public mind on the one hand, and the conflicting opinion of our churches in Delaware and Maryland on this subject, we deem it inexpedient to divide the Philadelphia Conference by State lines at this time." The report of the committee was adopted unanimously.
News of the firing upon Fort Sumter (April 12th) was received in Philadelphia by telegraph on the same day, but did not become generally known until published in the newspapers of the following day. On the reception of the news at Harrisburg the State Legislature immediately passed the bill, drawn up by A.K. McClure, appropriating five hundred thousand dollars toward organizing, equipping, and arming the militia. On Saturday, April 13th, a feverish interest in the dispatches from the seat of hostilities followed the announcement in the morning papers that war had actually commenced. The streets in the centre of the city were thronged until a late hour at night, and "every one who hinted any sympathy with the secessionists was made to take an unequivocal stand." At an early hour on Sunday groups of men gathered around the newspaper and telegraph offices, and eagerly discussed the news of the surrender of Fort Sumter, as published in the extras. The feeling in opposition to secession was very strong, and one individual who openly expressed his sympathy for the South was set upon and chased from Third and Chestnut Streets into Dr. Jayne's drug-store. Here he was protected by policemen, who barred the door, and thus effected his rescue. A hand-bill was circulated during the day calling upon "young men desirous of rallying around the standard of the Union" to enroll themselves immediately in the new volunteer Light Artillery Regiment, "now rapidly filling up, and ready to march upon the receipt of orders from the Governor." This circular was issued by order of Captain J. Brady, acting major. At most of the city armories the volunteers gathered during the day, discussing the probable effect of the news from a military point of view. The Union feeling was strongly in the ascendant, and it was agreed on all hands that the government should be sustained at all hazards, and independent of party predilections. During the evening the throngs on the street increased, and the extras, announcing that a proclamation would be issued by the President calling for seventy-five thousand volunteers, were quickly sold.
A meeting of the officers of the First Regiment, Washington Brigade, was held at Military Hall, Third Street near Green, on Saturday evening, April 13th, lieutenant-Col. C.M. Berry presiding. Gen. Small stated that he had visited Washington and tendered the command of the brigade to Hon. Simon Cameron, who had accepted. Recruiting soon became general, and the ranks of the volunteer companies filled up rapidly.
On Monday, April 15th, an excited crowd collected in front of No. 337 Chestnut Street, owing to a rumor that a paper called The Palmetto Flag, which advocated secessionist principles, was published in the building. Finally several men entered the door leading to the stairway and attempted to ascend to the third story, where the publication-office was said to be. A policeman interfered, and the men left the building. The crowd, however, continued to increase, and a demand was made that the American flag should be displayed from one of the windows of the room in which The Palmetto Flag was said to be published. Mayor Henry soon made his appearance at one of the windows, waving a small flag, and was greeted with cheers. The mayor addressed the assemblage, appealing to all citizens who were loyal to the flag to show their respect for it and for the laws by retiring to their respective homes. The request was not complied with, however, until a large flag had been unfurled from the building, and a number of persons remained until some time in the afternoon. In consequence of the excitement, Town & Co., the publishers of The Palmetto Flag, announced that they would suspend its publication. While the crowd was still gathered in front of The Palmetto Flag office, the stars and stripes were being run up at the American Hotel, Chestnut Street, above Fifth. By some mismanagement the flag ascended the staff union down. As soon as the mistake had been discovered the flag was lowered, but not until the crowd, having noticed the reversal of the ensign, and interpreting it as an insult to the Union, had made a rush for the hotel. In a few minutes the flag reappeared in the usual way, and was greeted with cheers. About noon the crowd began to move in other directions, visiting various places where flags had not been exhibited as an evidence of the Union sentiments of the occupants, and requiring them to be displayed. A paper, declaring the unalterable determination of the subscribers "to sustain the government in its effort to maintain the honor, the integrity, and the existence of our national Union and the perpetuity of the popular government," was circulated on the 15th and following days for signatures. Among the subscribers were Horace Binney, S.G. Fisher, James R. Webb, Joseph R. Ingersoll, J.I. Clark Hare, Samuel C. Perkins, William M. Meredith, Charles Gilpin, B. Gerhard, Richard Vaux; William H. Kern, James Bayard, H.C. Carey, Thomas A. Biddle, William E. Lehman, V. Gilpin, James W. Paul, C.W. Churchman, Oswald Thompson, George M. Stroud, C.N. Bancker, Morton McMichael, L.C. Cassidy, S.A. Mercer, Charles S. Peaslee, Charles Gibbons, Ch. Borie, Charles Platt, David Webster, Charles Dutilh, Edward H. Trotter, John C. Knox, Edward S. Whelen, Matthew Morris, R. Smethurst, John W. Field, William R. White, C.H. Fisher, C.G. Ohilds, W. Cummings, Alexander Fullerton, William D. Lewis, Charles Gilpin, George H. Stuart, Samuel H. Perkins, Richard S. Smith, E.M. Lewis, Benjamin Rush, Thomas C. Hand, Daniel Smith, Jr., J. Murray Rush, E.A. Souder, H.P. Borie, C. Guillou, J. Hill Martin, I.P. Hutchinson, Victor Guillou, John H. Penrose, William R. Lejee, S.P. Wiltbank, Alexander Biddle, D. Dougherty, Joshua W. Bates, Horace Binney, Jr., Theodore Cuyler, J.H. Curtis, Jr. On the evening of April 15th the members of the Corn Exchange fired a salute of thirty-four guns from their rooms in Second Street in honor of their new flag and the whole Union.
On the 15th of April, Maj.- Gen. Robert Patterson, commanding the First Division Pennsylvania Volunteers, issued an order calling attention to the President's proclamation asking for seventy-five thousand volunteers, and stating that he relied on the loyalty of the officers and men of his division for the enforcement of a rigid system of military instruction. The brigadier-generals were directed to give orders for special attention to the instruction of members of companies, and to adopt the most efficient means for putting their brigades in condition for immediate service. Under President Lincoln's requisition upon the State of Pennsylvania for sixteen regiments, Philadelphia's quota was six regiments, and the companies in process of organization vied with each as to which should have their ranks full first.
Gen. Robert Patterson died Aug. 7, 1881, aged eighty-nine years. He was for a half-century one of the most conspicuous public men in Philadelphia. His military position gave him unusual prominence. Entering the army of the United States during the war of 1812, he was appointed first lieutenant in the Twenty-second Regiment of Infantry. He was transferred to the Third Regiment in May, 1813, and before the war ended held the position of captain. Returning to Philadelphia, he became interested in the volunteer branch of the Pennsylvania militia. He was elected captain of the Washington Blues upon the formation of that company, on the 17th of August, 1817. The Blues was a large and spirited company, and was noted for its strength and efficiency in military exercises. Some time after they were formed, Captain Patterson was elected colonel of the City Volunteer Infantry Regiment, retaining at the same time the command of the Blues. In 1824, Brig.-Gen. Thomas Cadwalader, of the City Brigade, resigned that position, having been previously elected major-general of the First Division, to succeed Gen. Isaac Worrell. Col. Patterson was elected brigadier-general of the City Brigade. In 1833, Gen. Cadwalader having resigned the position of major general, Brig. Gen. Patterson succeeded, him. He held that rank until 1867, when he resigned. During all that period he was prominent in the city upon occasions of military parades, processions, and as chief commander of the division in times of riot and disturbance, when the services of the troops were called. He was in command of the troops which went to Harrisburg during the Buckshot war in 1835. During the Native American riots of 1844 he had command of the troops in Kensington, and at the church of St. Philip de Neri in Southwark. For some time after the latter riot the city was practically under martial law. Gen. Patterson had his headquarters at the Girard Bank, and remained there until quietness and good order were assured. Upon the breaking out of the war between the United States and Mexico he was appointed major-general in the service of the United States. He was in command at the battle of Cerro Gordo, which was fought on the 18th of April, 1847, in which eight thousand five hundred American troops vanquished twelve thousand Mexicans. He commanded the advance which followed the retreating enemy, and on the 19th of April captured Jalapa. He took part in the subsequent engagements in the heart of Mexico, and entered the city of Mexico with the victorious army. After the close of the war he returned to the United States with the troops, and participated in the reception of the Pennsylvania volunteers by the citizens of Philadelphia on the 24th of July, 1848. At the outbreak of the rebellion he was commissioned major-general by Governor Curtin, and was assigned to the command of the Pennsylvania three-months' volunteers. The United States government immediately appointed him to the command of the military department composed of the States of Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. With the three months' men he crossed the Potomac on the 15th of June, 1861. There were skirmishes and engagements with the rebels. Eventually Gen. Patterson reached Winchester; a rebel force, commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, being in front of him. While there he was anxious to attack the enemy, but was restrained by positive orders from Gen. Scott to make no movement until directed. That order to attack never came. Patterson remained idle at Winchester, menacing Johnston, without authority to fight him. Meanwhile the bulk of the force of Johnston was enabled to slip away to reinforce Beauregard toward the close of the battle of Bull Run, in consequence of which the Union troops under Gen. McDowell were defeated. This disaster caused great feeling throughout the Union, and Patterson was severely censured for his inactivity. As a soldier he was compelled to bear this odium without being able to show that he was in no fault. It was years afterward before he was able to break the seal of secrecy which had been maintained by the government, and to show by the publication of official orders that Gen. Scott was to blame, by compelling Patterson to remain idle in front of the enemy, waiting for orders which were never issued. On the expiration of the three months' term Gen. Patterson retired from active service, and returned to Philadelphia. Gen. Patterson was the son of an Irish farmer, and was, born in the County Tyrone, Ireland, Jan. 12, 1792. His father came to Pennsylvania, and settled at Ridley, in Delaware County, about 1799 or 1800, and lived upon the estate of John Sketchly Morton. He purchased five or six hundred acres of land on Ridley Creek, not far from the present village called Morton, in Springfield township, and engaged in farming. Robert Patterson was sent to the Springfield school, near by, a somewhat famous academy at the time, at which John Edgar Thomson and others who became eminent men were afterward educated. Having an inclination for a mercantile life, Robert Patterson was placed in the counting-house of Edward Thomson, who was a leading merchant of this city in the China and India trade, about the year 1808. He was appointed to the United States army while in Mr. Thomson's service. About 1817 he commenced on his own account as a grocer at No. 260 High Street. Some time in 1818 he removed to No. 287 1/2 High Street. In 1833 the store of Robert Patterson & Co. was at No. 182 High Street, between Fifth and Sixth. The wholesale grocery business led Gen. Patterson into purchases of sugar, and gave him extensive connections with the sugar-growing districts of the South, especially in Louisiana, where he became owner of sugar plantations. From sugar he gradually was induced to take participation in the cotton trade, and by degrees the grocery business was abandoned. He became a large dealer in cotton, and furnished the material for cotton-mills. Those interests compelled him at length to become a cotton manufacturer, not so much from inclination as by necessity. The failure of manufacturers who were his debtors compelled him, in order to save himself from loss, to purchase their mills, and thus by degrees he became a manufacturer. This interest increased so that he became in time the largest cotton manufacturer in the country. At the time of his death he was the owner of the Patterson Mills, in Chester, the Ripka Mills, in Manayunk, and the Lenni Mills, in 'Delaware County. His principal offices and counting-houses at the time of his death were at Manayunk and at No. 136 Chestnut Street. Gen. Patterson was a man of strong social instincts. He was a prominent figure upon every social occasion. He was one of the founders of the Aztec Club, established by officers of the United States army in Mexico in October, 1847, was elected president at that time, and remained in that office until his death. He was one of the founders, and a member until his death, of the Saturday Club of the city. He was a member of the Farmers' Club, a social organization. He held a few prominent civil offices. He was a member of the State Board of Canal Commissioners from 1827 to 1829. He was State director of the Philadelphia Bank for many years, and was afterward director elected by the stockholders. He was for some years president and member of the Board of Inspectors of the Eastern Penitentiary. He was the first president of the Philadelphia and Wilmington Railroad Company. He was for a long time member and president of the Hibernian Society. In 1874 he was elected a trustee of Lafayette College at Easton. In politics he was always a Democrat. He was a Presidential elector and president of the Pennsylvania electoral college in 1837. Gen. Patterson survived his wife (who was a Miss Engle) about six years. His son, Col. Francis. E. Patterson, had command of the First Regiment of Pennsylvania Artillery during the three months' service, and unfortunately died in the service from an accidental pistol-shot wound. His eldest son, William Patterson, is a resident of Tennessee. His son, Gen. Robert E. Patterson, a graduate of West Point, and for some years an officer of the United States army, was engaged in business with him. One of his daughters married the Hon. J. Ross Snowden, who was for some years treasurer of the United States Mint, and clerk of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Another daughter married Gen. John J. Abercrombie, of the United States army. Mrs. Lynde was another daughter.
The Board of Trade and Board of Stock Brokers met on the 16th of April and passed resolutions declaring their unalterable attachment to the Union and their purpose to support the government. Similar resolutions were adopted at a meeting of citizens of the Nineteenth Ward, which was held on the same day at Temperance Hall, Frankford road and York Street. Speeches indorsing the resolutions were made by John M. Carson, Fletcher Budd, A. Warthman, A.J. Holmes, and others.
On the 16th of April Mayor Henry issued a proclamation declaring that treason against the State of Pennsylvania or against the United States would not be suffered within the city, nor would violence to the persons or property of its inhabitants be tolerated. "I do hereby require all good citizens," continued the proclamation, "to disclose and make known to the lawful authorities every person rendering in this city aid to enemies in open war against this State and the United States by enlisting or procuring others to enlist for that purpose, or by furnishing such enemies with arms, ammunition, provisions, or other assistance. I do hereby require and command that all persons shall refrain from assembling in the highways of this city unlawfully, riotously, or tumultuously, warning them that the same will be at their peril. The laws of our State and Federal government must be obeyed. The peace and credit of Philadelphia shall be preserved. May God save our Union."
Commenting upon this proclamation, the Public Ledger of April 17th said, "Under the supposition that manufacturers have been furnishing arms to the secessionists, manufactories have been visited by organized bodies of persons, and the workmen compelled to leave. Private citizens have also had their houses visited, and a display of flags demanded of them." After indorsing the mayor's declaration that persons engaged in rendering aid to the enemies of the United States would be handed over to the lawful authorities, the same paper expressed its approval of the mayor's determination to protect citizens suspected of Southern proclivities from the violence of party spirit.
A meeting of merchants and manufacturers of Philadelphia was held at the Board of Trade room, on the 17th of April, for the purpose of taking action expressive of their determination to support the government. John E. Addicks called the meeting to order, and nominated David S. Brown as chairman, and William C. Ludwig as secretary. After a brief address by Mr. Brown, S.V. Merrick said, "The executive committee at its last meeting felt that the time had come when every man should show where he stood, whether for the government or against it. The committee, on that occasion, passed resolutions expressive of their fidelity to the Union. At the same time it was thought proper that a meeting of the merchants of the city should be called to indorse their resolutions." Mr. Ludwig then read a series of resolutions, to the effect that the merchants and manufacturers of Philadelphia, "forgetting all political differences, unmindful of party lines and distinctions, remembering only that we are fellow-citizens of one beloved country, and that country in danger," pledged themselves to use all their influence to strengthen the hands of the government and cheerfully to bear their share "of the sacrifices and perils of the hour." After speeches by George N. Tatham, George L. Buzby, and W.D. Lewis, the following resolution was offered by Levi T. Rutter:
"Resolved, in the glowing words of our Revolutionary sires, we hereby pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor to support the Union, the Constitution, and the laws."
After an earnest pro-Union speech by Marcellus Mundy, the resolution was adopted. Hon. William D. Kelley, Frederick Fraley, and Dr. Elder then addressed the meeting, after which the resolutions as read by Mr. Ludwig were adopted by acclamation.
On the evening of the same day (April 17th) a number of persons formerly connected with the Washington Grays Artillery Corps met at the Wetherill House for the purpose of organizing a reserve guard for the protection of the city. Charles S. Smith was elected chairman. Col. C.G. Childs said that Independence Hall, the birthplace of liberty, "should be defended against all assaults of those traitors" who were "contemplating the capture of Washington." Col. Childs, Morton McMichael, Joseph M. Thomas, Peter C. Ellmaker, and Charles Gilpin were appointed a committee to draft a series of resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting, and a paper was submitted for signatures stating that the undersigned, retired and contributing members of the Washington Grays, and other citizens of the city of Philadelphia, over forty-five years of age, agreed to "raise a regiment of at least eight hundred men for the purpose of defending and protecting the city of Philadelphia, to be designated as the Reserve Corps," and pledged themselves to each other to maintain the laws and uphold the constituted authorities of the country in her hour of trial. At the different recruiting-stations the excitement continued unabated, and on the 18th it was announced that the ranks of the Washington brigade were nearly full. The display of the national flag had also become general. "The city," said a contemporary journal, "never presented so brilliant an appearance as at present in the way of the display of the stars and stripes. All the public buildings and hundreds of proprietors of stores have thrown the glorious flag to the breeze, and in some quarters it floats from private dwellings." The following appeal, said to have emanated from a meeting of ladies, was widely circulated:
The crisis now impending on the country calls forth the true patriotism of every woman in the community; and while our husbands, fathers, and brothers are engaged in war, that we may not be found wanting in deep sympathy,
"Resolved, This 16th day of April, that we, as a body of ladies, do hereafter adopt the colors of the Union, to be worn as a rosette or bow, hoping to express by this simple manifestation the devoted feeling we have for our country, and as we think every true American woman must feel at this present time.
"RED, WHITE, AND BLUE."
The suggestion was promptly complied with, and on the following day, April 18th, a number of women appeared on the streets wearing the rosettes.
In Select Council, on the 18th of April, Mr. Megary submitted an ordinance authorizing the mayor to issue a proclamation offering a reward of five hundred dollars for the apprehension and conviction of any person or persons who, within the limits of Philadelphia, should violate the provisions of the act then recently passed by the Pennsylvania Legislature defining treasonable acts. An ordinance offered by Mr. Wetherill provided that the sum of ten thousand dollars should be appropriated for the purchase of arms or other munitions of war for the use of a home guard or any other company that might be formed for the defense of the city. In the same connection Mr. Wetherill presented a subscription paper in which the signers volunteered to give five thousand dollars toward the purchase of twelve howitzers and their equipment, to be under the control of the Home Guards. Mr. Dickson submitted an ordinance appropriating one hundred thousand dollars for the relief of families of volunteers. Similar ordinances were offered by Messrs. Bradford and Beideman, and Daniel M. Fox introduced a series of resolutions expressing gratification that Pennsylvania had proven her loyalty. Mr. Benton offered a resolution instructing the commissioner of city property to tender the city halls for the purpose of drilling; and another resolution directing the commissioner to purchase American flags and to have them displayed from the dome of every district hall. Mr. Bradford submitted an ordinance to organize, equip, and pay a mounted police force of five hundred men for a term of three months, the members to receive the same pay as that of the regular police force. A series of resolutions was submitted by Mr. Davis declaring the undying devotion of the citizens of Philadelphia to the Union, and pledging the faith and credit of the city to the general government to the extent of one million dollars to aid in the enforcement of the laws. Mr. Ginnodo submitted a resolution beseeching Maryland to stand by the Union, and pledging the sympathy of the people of Philadelphia to the people of Baltimore in their efforts on behalf of the Union. These ordinances and resolutions were referred to a special committee, which reported in favor of asking Common Council to appoint a committee to confer with the Select Council committee as to the measures proper to adopt in the pending crisis. The report was agreed to. Mr. Benton offered a resolution, which was adopted, instructing the special committee to inquire into the propriety of continuing the salary of any public officer "who shall be enrolled into the service of the United States whose pay is less than two hundred dollars per annum." On motion of Mr. Craig it was determined that a committee should be appointed to tender to Maj. Robert Anderson the hospitalities of the city on his arrival in Philadelphia. In the Common Council, Mr. Quin offered resolutions approving the general government's determination to "enforce the laws, quell rebellion, and preserve the integrity of the Union," and declaring that "the defense of Fort Sumter by the gallant Maj. Anderson demands, and deserves, the highest meed of praise, and that, as a mark of our high appreciation of his incorruptible patriotism and unfaltering courage, the city of Philadelphia present him with a sword, and that the mayor, together with the presidents of Select and Common Councils, be a committee for carrying this resolution into effect." Both resolutions were adopted, the first unanimously, and the second with only one vote in the negative. Mr. Kerr submitted a letter from the clerk of Common Council, Gen. William F. Small, asking leave of absence during the period in which he should be engaged as a soldier in aiding to suppress the insurrection in the Southern States. A resolution was passed granting the desired leave of absence provided it did not continue longer than the first Monday in January following. The resolution was afterward concurred in by Select Council with the exception of a section appropriating five hundred dollars to furnish equipments to Gen. Small. Mr. Potter submitted an ordinance appropriating sixty thousand dollars for the relief and support of such of the families of the citizens of Philadelphia who were then or should be subsequently regularly mustered into the service of the United States, as needed assistance during their absence; the same to be expended for that purpose in such manner as a committee of six of the citizens three to be chosen by each branch of Councils separatelyshould, in conjunction with the presidents of Select and Common Councils, the mayor and the city solicitor, from time to time direct. The ordinance recommended to the citizens that they cooperate in this design by individual subscriptions. On motion of Mr. Cattell the amount was made one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars instead of sixty thousand dollars, and the ordinance as amended was then adopted. Mr. Potter submitted an ordinance, which was passed, appropriating five thousand dollars for the use of the mayor, "to be employed by him as he may deem expedient for the preservation of the public peace, the security of the city, and the detection and prevention of any plans or combinations to destroy the government of this State or of the United States." The mayor was also requested and authorized "to use all and every means in his power to detect and prevent any combinations, conspiracies, or endeavors whatever or by whomsoever made, within the city, to subvert the government of this State or of the United States, or to aid, succor, or assist any person or persons in rebellion against the same, or to molest or disturb the peace or property of the citizens, and to prosecute such person or persons to the full extent of the law." The resolution from Select Council requesting Common Council to appoint a committee to confer with a similar committee of the former body on the state of the country was concurred in. The two committees consisted of the following members: Select Council, Messrs. McIntyre, Megary, Wetherill, Davis, Beideman, Dickson, Drayton, and Riley; Common Council, Messrs. Catherwood, Kerr, Hodgson, Moore, Paul, Lynd, Loughliri, and Potter.
On the 19th of April a card was published by S.E. Cohen announcing that in compliance with requests from various quarters he had opened a muster-roll at his office, 712 Chestnut Street, for the organization of a battalion of volunteers for home protection, to be known as the Municipal Guard. On the same day all the military companies intended for service under the general government were mustered and placed under marching orders. The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, Col. Edward F. Jones, which had arrived on the previous evening en route for Washington via Baltimore, met with an enthusiastic reception. On their arrival at the foot of Walnut Street, by steamer from the Jersey shore, they were greeted with cheer after cheer from the large assemblage of men and women collected on Delaware Avenue and the wharves in the vicinity. The regiment formed in line on Delaware Avenue, and marched up Walnut to Dock Street, up Dock to Third, up Third to Chestnut, and up Chestnut to the Girard House. So great was the crowd about the hotel that it was with much difficulty that the troops obtained admission. In the evening the regiment was entertained at the Continental Hotel.
The news of the attack in Baltimore, on the 19th of April, on the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment and the troops from Philadelphia created great excitement in the city and intensified the Union sentiment. The Philadelphia troops, consisting of one-half of the Washington Brigade, comprising six companies of the First Regiment, lieutenant Col. Berry, and four companies of the Second Regiment, lieutenant Col. Schoenleber, left Philadelphia for Washington at three o'clock on the morning of the 19th, under the command of Gen. William F. Small. They numbered about eighteen hundred men. A short time before their departure the Massachusetts volunteers had left their quarters at the Girard House, and having marched to the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Depot, took the cars for Washington. On their arrival at the President Street Depot in Baltimore, the Massachusetts troops were met by a mob, which, obstructed their passage through the city. On attempting to force their way they were attacked by the rioters, and three of the Massachusetts soldiers were killed and several wounded. The troops returned the fire, killing eleven of the citizens, and finally succeeded in reaching the Camden Depot, whence they proceeded over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Washington. At the request of the Governor of Maryland and the mayor of Baltimore, the train containing the Philadelphia troops was ordered by the railroad officers to remain in the depot. The Philadelphians were unarmed, and without uniforms. Missiles were thrown at them while in the cars, and some of them were injured. In his report of the affair, as narrated to a newspaper reporter, Gen. Small said that the Pennsylvanians behaved gallantly, and many of them sprang from the cars upon their assailants and engaged in a hand-to-hand conflict with them. It was impossible, however, to distinguish friends from foes, as the mob was composed of Union men and secessionists, who were fighting among themselves, and the Pennsylvanians, not being uniformed, could not be distinguished from either. This state of things continued more than two hours, when Marshal Kane, the chief of police of Baltimore, appeared upon the ground, restored something like order, and placed the Pennsylvanians in cars ready to be returned North. The officers and men from Philadelphia, he added, conducted themselves with the utmost courage and deliberation. Regular troops could not have behaved better. The main body of the Washington Brigade returned on the night of the 19th, reaching the depot at Broad and Prime Streets at eleven o'clock. Twenty-eight members of the force became separated from the rest of the command, and according to the statement of one of their number, Samuel Baker, of Philadelphia, after fleeing about twenty-two miles from Baltimore in a northwesterly direction, they were arrested by a number of secessionists, marched across the country to Belair, Harford Co., Md., and there placed in jail. On the following day, however, they were released and escorted by troops to the Pennsylvania line, whence they proceeded to Philadelphia. The Baltimore riot produced intense resentment in Philadelphia, and called forth strong expressions of indignation from public bodies. In the City Council prompt action was taken for aiding a vigorous prosecution of the war. The special committee appointed by Select and Common Councils reported in favor f passing ordinances, first, requesting the citizens of Philadelphia to assemble in their respective wards and form companies of one hundred each for the purpose of drill for home service, and to answer any call from the government; second, instructing the Committee on Finance to report at the next meeting an ordinance for a loan of one million dollars for the purpose of meeting: the appropriations to provide for the families of volunteers and for other purposes connected with the disturbed condition of the country; third, that the commissioner of city property be requested to place at the disposal of any military organization for drill any of the city halls, when not otherwise occupied, free of charge; fourth, that" the fervent devotion to the Union manifested by the citizens of Baltimore entitles them to the warmest thanks of the citizens of Philadelphia and to the unbounded admiration of every Union-loving citizen of the United States;" fifth, that "the patriotic stand against secession maintained by Thomas H. Hicks, Governor of Maryland, proves him a patriot worthy of the proudest days of Greece or Rome, and will hand down his name to posterity en-graven with the same scroll with the worthiest of the heroes and sages of 1776;" sixth, that fifty thousand dollars be appropriated for the purchase of such arms and other munitions of war, "for the use of a Home Guard, or any other company hereafter to be formed for the defense of the city;" seventh, that one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars be appropriated for the relief and support of the families of volunteers engaged in the service of the Union; eighth, that the determined attitude taken by the general government for the suppression of the Rebellion be heartily approved, and that a sword be presented to Maj. Anderson; ninth, that five thousand dollars be appropriated to the use of the mayor for the preservation of peace in the city, the detection of persons engaged in treasonable designs against the government, and of persons engaged in molesting the property of citizens of Philadelphia. All of these recommendations were agreed to by both Select and Common Councils. Mr. Benton submitted a resolution continuing the salary of any officer of the city who, before the proclamation of the President of the United States, was connected with volunteer companies, and who might be called into service. This resolution was referred to the special committee. The activity at the recruiting stations was greatly increased after the attack upon the Massachusetts and Pennsylvania troops in Baltimore had become generally known. On the 19th, Maj.-Gen. Robert Patterson issued an order directing the regiments and companies of the Second and Third Brigades, who had volunteered for service, to report to Brig.-Gen. George Cadwalader for instructions. The troops, it was stated, would be inspected and mustered into the service of the United States by Maj. Ruff and Captain Heth of the army, and would march as soon as arms, ammunition, great-coats, blankets, and other appointments indispensable for the health of the men could be procured from the government. The First Division received orders to be in readiness to march at two hours' notice, and the armories all day on the 19th presented an animated appearance. The organization of companies of Home Guards in the different wards also received an impetus from the news from Baltimore, it being apprehended that if the secessionists retained possession of Baltimore, an attack might be made on Philadelphia. At a meeting of the soldiers of the war of 1812, held at Independence Hall, Hon. Joel B. Sutherland presiding, resolutions were adopted complimentary to Gen. Scott, Maj. Anderson, and Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, and pledging the support of those present to the general government in its efforts to put down domestic treason. A committee was appointed to draft an address to soldiers of the war of 1812 throughout the Union. During the quarterly meeting of the State Council of Pennsylvania, Order of United American Mechanics, held on the 19th, at their hall, corner Fourth and George Streets, it was determined to recommend the several councils to take such action as was necessary to provide for the keeping of such of their members in regular standing as might leave their homes for the defense of their country, and make such provision for their families as their necessities required. The members of the Tivoli Hose Company having volunteered for service in the Union army, decided, at a meeting held on the 19th, that the apparatus be placed in the hands of the citizens and police, to be used during their absence. It was also resolved to appropriate one hundred dollars out of the amount received from the city for the benefit of the families of volunteers.
On the evening of the 19th of April the Eighth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, Col. Monroe, arrived in the city. As they marched from Walnut Street wharf to their quarters at the Girard House they were enthusiastically cheered, and, on reaching the hotel, were received by an assemblage that crowded Chestnut, Eighth, and Ninth Streets in that vicinity. On the following day the regiment proceeded southward, taking a steamer at Havre de Grace for Annapolis. The Seventh New York Regiment arrived at Camden, N.J., early on the morning of the 20th and proceeded via Washington Street to the Broad Street Depot, where it remained until Saturday afternoon, when, news having been received of the interruption of travel southward via Baltimore, it returned to Washington Street wharf and embarked on the steamer "Boston," which dropped down the Delaware.
A seizure of contraband goods was made on the 19th of April by officers Taggart and Sharkey, who took possession of nine cases which, it was said, had been packed for shipment to Savannah, Ga. Four of the cases contained camp equipage, kettles, and pans; the other five were filled with knapsacks and haversacks. The goods were found in possession of a mercantile firm, which, upon discovering their character, declined to ship them. The officers were unable to trace them to first hands. On being opened the cases were found to contain two hundred and fifty camp kettles, two hundred and fifty mess-pans, five hundred and fifty knapsacks, and five hundred and fifty haversacks, all of which were turned over to the commissary department.
On the night of Friday, April 19th, Fort Delaware was garrisoned with one hundred and seventy-five men from Philadelphia, and on Saturday five thousand stand of muskets arrived in the city and were distributed among the troops. The Girard House was selected by Governor Curtin as a military depot, and a notice was posted on the streets on the 20th stating that women were wanted to make up army clothing for the Pennsylvania troops. On Saturday and Sunday, April 20th and 21st, the recruiting stations throughout the city were the scene of much excitement in consequence of the large numbers of volunteers who presented themselves for enlistment. On Sunday the companies belonging to the National Guard Regiment were drilled in Franklin Square. Drilling was also going on in most of the armories of the city.
The Buena Vista Guards, attached to the Washington Brigade, returned to Philadelphia from Baltimore on the 20th. Their commander, Captain E.W. Power, returned the following list of casualties killed, Peter Rogers, John V. Greaves; wounded, John McGercher, James Teague, Richard Mooney, Patrick J. Campbell, James Agnew, Miles Shield, John P. Murray, Thomas Foster, Thomas P. Little.
Home Guard Recruitment Begins
A town-meeting was held at the Exchange on the 20th, at which it was resolved that, "in view of the impending danger to our homes and liberties," it was "indispensable that a body of not less than ten regiments of resident citizens should be organized as a Home Guard without delay, each regiment to be composed of ten companies of not less than eighty men each, and that a committee of citizens be appointed to solicit subscriptions to the amount of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for the purchase of arms. Meetings were also held in the different wards, at all of which patriotic resolutions were adopted, and in some instances measures taken for the organization of companies of Home Guards. On the 20th Mayor Henry issued an order appointing Col. Augustus J. Pleasonton commander of the Home Guard in Philadelphia, with authority to organize, under the direction of the mayor, a force to be composed of the residents of Philadelphia for cavalry, artillery, infantry, and light infantry service.
On the night of April 19th the railroad bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad west of Havre de Grace and on the Northern Central Railroad south of Cockeysville were burned by Marylanders in order to prevent the passage of Northern troops through Baltimore to the South, thus necessitating their transportation from Havre de Grace by water to Annapolis. The country residence of Gen. George Cadwalader, on the Gunpowder River, Harford Co., Md., was also burned.
On the 22nd of April it was announced that the total number of men enrolled up to that time in the three Philadelphia brigades, exclusive of Gen. Small's brigade, which numbered two thousand men, was seven thousand six hundred. In addition to these, a number of independent companies had been formed. Gen. Robert Patterson, it was added, had been appointed to the chief command of the Pennsylvania troops, and Gen. Cadwalader to the command of the whole of the First Division, comprising the First, Second, and Third Brigades, all of Philadelphia.
Seizures of four tons of lead and a lot of gun-stocks, locks, and other portions of guns on their way South were made in Philadelphia on the 21st.
A number of ladies who were stopping at the Continental Hotel asked permission of Captain Gibson, in charge of the military depot at the Girard House, to assist in making up clothing for the troops. Their offer was accepted. Hundreds of working women congregated at the Girard House in order to obtain employment. During the day two hundred cutters were employed, and enough sewers to make up one thousand suits a day. At the town hall, Germantown, work of a similar character was given out.
On the 21st of April a joint committee of the City Councils, headed by Charles B. Trego, had an interview with Maj. Anderson in New York, and tendered that gentleman the hospitality of the city. Maj. Anderson expressed his gratification at the compliment, but said he was unable to make any engagement at that time.
A number of ladies met at 912 Chestnut Street on the 22nd of April and organized the "Philadelphia Military Nurse Corps." It was decided that the members wear a uniform consisting of blue Canada flannel and a Shaker bonnet trimmed with red, white, and blue. Each lady subscribed to a pledge to act as nurse in the United States army.
On the 23d of April it was announced that George Leisenring, a member of Gen. Small's brigade, who was severely stabbed during the riot in Baltimore, had died the night before at the Pennsylvania Hospital.
The uniform of the Home Guards, as determined by the commander, Col. Pleasonton, consisted of a single-breasted light or cadet-gray frockcoat, with standing collar and buttons of the arm to which the regiment belonged, pantaloons of drab color, army pattern, and a rosette of the national colors.
A meeting of members of the bar of Philadelphia was held at the Supreme Court room on the 22nd of April. Hon. William M. Meredith presided, with St. George Tucker Campbell, Judge Hare, and H.J. Williams as vice-presidents. On motion of 0.W. Davis it was resolved that a committee be appointed to receive subscriptions from members of the bar for the support of families of volunteers who were dependent upon their daily labor. Marcellus Mundy offered a resolution, which was adopted, that "the bar of the city of Philadelphia, in meeting assembled, are anxious and ready to tender their services as volunteers to protect the city of Philadelphia, and, if called upon, the government of the United States from the assaults of the rebels who are now in arms in the South," and that "a company be at once formed, in accordance with the above resolution." Consideration of the matter was postponed.
On the 24th of April it was announced that the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company having been taken in charge by the Federal government through an agent in Philadelphia, all its equipments were under the control of the government, and trains with troops were being sent out as fast as possible, an uninterrupted route to Washington having been completed. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, used for conveying troops from Philadelphia to the Chesapeake, was guarded by a force of one thousand men of Gen. Cadwalader's division. The arrival of troops in Philadelphia was now a matter of daily occurrence, the city being the chief point of concentration for the dispatch of military forces to the South.
On the 23d the First Regiment of Infantry, Col. William D. Lewis, Jr., with ten full companies of about one hundred men each, paraded, marching through the principal streets. Although men enough to make up six regiments had already been enrolled, recruiting was still proceeding rapidly. On the evening of the 23d the Reliance Fire-Engine Company held a meeting, and appropriated one hundred dollars per man to provide equipments for those members who had volunteered for military service. On the 24th it was announced that the Municipal Guards had elected the following officers: S.E. Cohen, Sr., captain and acting major of battalion; Col. William H. Dinmore, vice-president; William H. Helmbold, secretary; and J.L. Hamelin, battalion paymaster. On the same day the following appointments by Gen. Reuben C. Hale, quartermaster-general of the Pennsylvania militia, were made public: Assistant Quartermasters, John K. Murphy, W.V. McGrath, William M. Hale, R.R. Young; Assistant Quartermaster for duties in Ordnance Department, A.L. Magilton; Assistant Quartermasters for the transportation of troops and provisions from West Philadelphia, F.A. Showers and 0.D. Mehaffey; Clerks, H.H. Shillingford, Samuel W. Wray, and James McMullin; Commissary Department, Reuben C. Hale, acting quartermaster-general; Assistant Commissaries, John Derbyshire, A.J. Antelo, Thomas Webster, Jr., John Haviland, Thomas J. Diehl; Chief Clerk, Evan W. Grubb; Clerk, Jonathan Cummings; Messengers, John R. Dialogue and E.P. Stiles. At a special meeting of the trustees of the city ice-boat held on the 23d, it was determined to tender the vessel to Captain Dupont, commandant at the navy-yard. Captain Dupont accepted the boat, and said she would be employed on important business at once. Col. Pleasonton, commander of the Home Guards, announced on the 24th the following appointments: Aids, Samuel B. Henry, Andrew Cohen, Lewis H. Ashhurst, and Thomas B. Dwight; Secretary, Lewis A. Scott; Quartermaster and Commissary, Col. Wil1iam Bradford; Assistant Commissary, James S. Watson; Secretary to the Quartermaster, Henry C. Kutz.
A movement to create a "Volunteers' Home Fund" was inaugurated at a meeting held in West Philadelphia on the 23d, Judge Allison presiding. The subscriptions were payable in monthly installments during the ensuing six months, and were to be distributed through a general executive committee. At a meeting of residents of Chestnut Hill, on the evening of the 22nd, Col. C.G. Childs presiding, similar action was taken for creating a fund for the relief of families of volunteers.
An adjourned meeting of members of the bar of Philadelphia was held on the 22nd, for the purpose of taking final action upon Mr. Mundy's resolution for the formation of a military company. Judge Knox proposed the form of a paper for members to sign, tendering their services as volunteers to protect the city of Philadelphia, and "to aid, if called upon, the government of the United States in the suppression of the rebellion now existing in some of the Southern States." The document was approved by the meeting, which then adjourned, whereupon Mr. Mundy drew up a more specific paper, which he submitted to the members for signatures, declaring that the subscribers volunteered their services to guard and defend the city ofPhilade1phia, "and, if required by the constituted authorities, to aid in the defense of the government and the American flag." Mr. Mundy, however, did not meet with much success in obtaining signatures.
On the 25th of April it was stated in the Philadelphia newspapers that the delay in forwarding troops to Washington from Philadelphia, caused by want of information as to the condition of the route via Havre de Grace and Annapolis, Md., had been obviated. Armed men had been placed along the whole route of the railroad from Elkton, Md., to Havre de Grace, at which point a fleet of vessels had been concentrated for the purpose of conveying troops to Annapolis, and the railroad being in the hands of the Federal government, the transportation of troops and stores was being prosecuted with great energy.
In addition to the armories the public squares were now used for drilling troops, and the city had the aspect of a great military camp.
The Ladies' Union Relief Association announced on the 25th that they would be glad to receive contributions of money or materials, such as flannel, cotton socks, handkerchiefs, and crash, to be made up for the soldiers who had volunteered in defense of their country. At this time over two thousand persons were employed in the manufacture of army clothing at the Girard House. Among those engaged in the work were many ladies from fashionable portions of the city. At the United States Arsenal a large force of women was employed in the same kind of work. A meeting of ladies representing various Christian denominations was held at Rev. Dr. Boardman's church on the 24th of April, to concert measures for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers and sailors. Dr. Boardman opened the meeting with prayer, and Mrs. Judge Jones was chosen to preside. It was resolved to proceed at once to carry out the objects of the meeting, and a committee was appointed to procure the requisite information as to the furnishing of a hospital and other matters.
On the 25th it was announced that the chairman of the bar meeting, held on the 22nd, had appointed 0.W. Davis, H.M. Phillips, E.S. Miller, D. Dougherty, and Charles Gibbons a committee to receive contributions to the fund for the support of the families of volunteers.
A meeting of the committee of superintendence, appointed at a general meeting of the soldiers of the war of 1812, was held on the 23d, Peter Hay presiding, and Edward King secretary, at which it was resolved that there being still some among them some whose physical energies had not been materially impaired, they would organize a corps for the defense of the city, and the maintenance of order and public security. It was also determined that subscription-lists or enrollments of soldiers of the war of 1812 should be opened at the offices of Alderman Hay and Matthew Newkirk, and at the residence of Col. Lemuel Painter, and that when the enrollment had been completed a meeting should be called for the organization of a command to be known as "The Veteran Guard of the War of 1812."
As the bell at Independence Hall struck twelve o'clock on the 24th an American flag with thirty-four stars was unfurled from the flag-staff of Carpenters' Hall, where the first Continental Congress met. The ceremony was accompanied by the singing of the "Star-Spangled Banner" by a chorus of young ladies. On the morning of the same day a meeting of the Carpenters' Company was held at the hall (with James A. Campbell presiding, John Williams secretary), at which patriotic resolutions were adopted. It was also decided that those of the members who were able and willing should form themselves into a volunteer company, to be known as the Carpenters' Company, to be attached to the Home Guard of the city of Philadelphia, to be used in such service, either mechanical or military, as might be deemed most advisable.
Col. George Gibson, Jr., of the United States army, who, at Governor Curtin's request, accompanied R.L. Martin, the Governor's special agent, to the city to assist in getting up the ten thousand uniforms required for the troops then concentrating in the field, published a card on the 25th, acknowledging the services rendered the State by the cutters and trimmers of the Schuylkill arsenal, in cutting out from United States patterns the various garments to be used by the volunteer troops. Col. Gibson, on behalf of the Governor, returned sincere thanks to all who were engaged in sewing clothing for the troops. "Never," he added, "has been witnessed such devotion to the comforts of the soldier as is presented by the crowds of ladies (both rich and poor) daily besieging the doors of the Girard House for employment."
The Germans of Philadelphia held several meetings for the purpose of devising measures for the relief of the families of German volunteers, and a committee of fifty was finally appointed to solicit contributions. The following were elected permanent officers of the organization: President, Jacob Kemper; Vice-President, Julius Hem; Treasurer, C.A. Thudium; Secretary, F. Reuter. A sub-committee, consisting of Captain V. Wicht, Julius Hein, Fr. Staake, John Weik, and August Bourkner, was appointed to confer with the city authorities with regard to the distribution of the relief fund appropriated by Councils. About three thousand Germans, it was stated, had thus far entered the service of the government in Philadelphia.
At a meeting of the St. George's Society, held on the 23d, the members passed a series of resolutions expressive of their loyalty to the government under which they lived, and calling earnestly upon all Englishmen residing in Philadelphia to declare themselves in support of the stars and stripes. It was also decided that, in view of the distracted state of the country, the usual anniversary dinner be dispensed with, and that the money which would have been devoted to it should be subscribed for the relief of families of volunteers requiring aid.
In the City Councils, on the 25th of April, the committee under whose control the one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars appropriated for the relief of families of volunteers was to be distributed was announced as consisting of the mayor, city solicitor, presidents of Select and Common Councils, M.W. Baldwin, John Robbins, Jr., and Peter Williamson, on the part of the citizens, and Thomas Potter and William Loughhin, on the part of Councils. Mr. Kerr submitted a communication from J.J. Gumper, in which he stated that, "believing it to be the duty of every citizen to aid the constituted authorities to the extent of his abilities during the present unnatural rebellion," he would tender to the city of Philadelphia a loan of five thousand dollars without interest for two years if the war should last so long. The reading of the letter was greeted with loud applause, and a resolution thanking Mr. Gumper was adopted. An ordinance authorizing the mayor, in connection with the joint special committee of Councils, to take such measures as he might deem necessary for the safety of the city and the protection of property, and appropriating two hundred thousand dollars therefor, was passed by both branches of Councils. In the Common Council, Mr. Quin announced that the Buena Vista Guards, of Philadelphia, had assigned to him the duty of presenting to the city of Philadelphia, through the president of the chamber, the first trophy gained in the war just inaugurated. The trophy was the flag borne by the secessionists and under which they had fought during the riot in Baltimore on the 19th of April. It was captured by the Buena Vista Guards, who formed part of Gen. Small's command, and brought it to Philadelphia. The Council adopted a resolution thanking the donors.
The Southwark Navy-Yard became the scene of great activity soon after the firing upon Fort Sumter, and on the 25th over six hundred men were at work fitting out vessels for the use of the government. A large quantity of stores had been concentrated at the yard, over fifty thousand dollars' worth of provisions and clothing having been removed from Norfolk, Va., before the destruction of government property at that place. Great activity also prevailed at the rendezvous for shipping seamen, from twenty to thirty being sent to the yard daily. At the Bridesburg Arsenal the employes worked day and night to fill, orders for arms and ammunition.
On the 26th of April news was received that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, between Baltimore and Washington, had been put in condition for travel, and that the New York Seventh and the Massachusetts regiments, which had left Philadelphia for the national capital via Havre de Grace and Annapolis, a week before, had arrived at Washington. It was added that the route being now unobstructed, the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania troops would be sent off as rapidly as they were equipped.
Announcement was made on the 29th of April that the full quota of men called for from Philadelphia under the requisition of the Governor had been furnished, and that most of the companies had received their equipments and were ready to march.
In compliance with the advice of the United States attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, William Millward, marshal of the district, gave notice on the 27th of April that he would take into custody all flour and other provisions, and also all munitions of war and military stores, directed and intended to be sent to Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and all other States engaged in making war on the Federal government, and would hold them subject to legal process or the order of the government. Under this order Deputy Marshal Jenkins seized two hundred and fifty barrels of flour at the Baltimore Railroad Depot, intended for Baltimore, two kegs of powder, and six revolvers, which were found at the same place among the effects of a resident of Cecil County, Md.
During the excitement in Baltimore which followed the l9th of April riot, a number of Union sympathizers left the city, and most of them came to Philadelphia. On the evening of the 26th addresses were delivered to a large assemblage in front of the Continental Hotel by some of the refugees. Among the speakers were J.B. Shoemaker, E. Rawlings, and T.J. Rogers. A meeting of Marylanders, resident in Philadelphia, was held at the American Hotel the same evening, for the purpose of devising some means of relieving those Baltimoreans who had been summarily compelled to leave their homes.
H. Dickson was called to the chair, and A. Holland was appointed secretary. A communication was read from the Hibernia Fire Company tendering the use of their hall for the Baltimoreans, and it was determined that those present should act in connection with a committee which had been appointed by the Hibernia Company for aiding the refugees.
On Sunday, April 28th, after the benediction, the organ at St. Stephen's Protestant Episcopal Church pealed forth "The Star-Spangled Banner," the rector, Rev. Henry W. Ducachet, D.D., remaining in the chancel until it had ceased. Dr. Ducachet had already accepted the appointment of chaplain of the First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by Col. William D. Lewis, Jr.
An order of lieutenant- Gen. Winfield Scott, extending the Military Department of Washington so as to include, in addition to the District of Columbia and Maryland, the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania, and assigning Maj.-Gen. Robert Patterson to the command, was published in the Philadelphia newspapers of April 30th. Gen. Scott instructed Gen. Patterson, in the same order, to post the Pennsylvania volunteers as fast as they were mustered into service all along the railroad from Wilmington, Del., to Washington City in sufficient numbers and in such proximity as would give reasonable protection to the lines of parallel wires to the road, its rails, bridges, cars, and stations. In compliance with Gen. Scott's instructions Gen. Patterson issued an order, from his headquarters in Philadelphia, directing that commanders of troops entering the department from the East, North, or West should, on their arrival, report for instructions, and stating that lieutenant-Col. Hale, quartermaster-general of Pennsylvania, would be prepared to furnish cooked rations for three days to the troops of any State on their way to Washington. Gen. Patterson cautioned the troops against molesting peaceable citizens, but announced that those who were not peaceable, or who were disposed to resist the authority of the government, would be punished. Commanders of corps were instructed to "shoot down without hesitation any man or party of men caught in the act of arson," or in any attempt to interrupt the line of communication.
The Providence Marine Artillery, of Providence, R.I., which arrived in Philadelphia on the 28th of April, and was quartered at the Broad and Prime Streets Depot, left for Washington via Annapolis on the 30th. The Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, from Schuylkill County, which arrived in Philadelphia on the 23d, encamped near the depot. Three companies of this command left on the 25th for Elkton, and the rest remained at the depot drilling. The regiment left Philadelphia on the 7th of May for points on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad.
A Committee of Public Safety, appointed by the citizens of Philadelphia, co-operated with the municipal authorities in preparations for defense. On the 1st of May it was stated that many of the Philadelphia corporations had responded most liberally to the solicitations of the Safety Committee for funds.
C.A. Greiner, of Georgia, was arrested on the 30th of April by Captain McMullin, by order of Gen. Patterson, on the charge of treason. The family of Mr. Greiner had been living in Philadelphia for some months, but he had reached the city only a few days before his arrest. It was alleged against Mr. Greiner that he had headed the citizens of Savannah, Ga., who drove the United States forces from Fort Pulaski. Mr. Greiner admitted that he had participated in the capture, but only as a private, and claimed that he had done so in order to aid in preventing the fort from falling into the hands of a mob. He added that he was a native of Philadelphia and as good a Union man as could be found. He was committed for trial, but after a hearing before Judge Cadwalader was released on ten thousand dollars bail to keep the peace.
In his message to the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in extra session, on the 30th of April, Governor Curtin stated that seven regiments had already been organized and mustered into service in Pennsylvania.
At a meeting of the British residents of Philadelphia, held on the 2nd of May, it was determined to form a company for home defense.
Maj. Robert Anderson, who had commanded the Union garrison at Fort Sumter, arrived on the 3d of May, on his way to Washington. As he passed through the streets he was frequently recognized from the numerous portraits of him in circulation, and enthusiastically cheered.
In the daily papers of May 6th appeared an address to Gen. Winfield Scott, dated April 30th, and signed by about two hundred leading citizens, expressing their admiration, and offering their thanks for his services to the country. Among the signers were Alexander Henry, Richard Vaux, Theodore Cuyler, Horace Binney, William M. Meredith, and C. Macalester.
An iron car, built for the government at the locomotive-works of Baldwin & Co., and to be used for defensive purposes on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, was taken to the Broad and Prime Streets Depot on the 4th of May. The sides and top were of the best boiler-iron, warranted to resist rifle-balls. One-half of the car was furnished with port-holes, so as to permit the use of a cannon which moved on a pivot. It was also pierced with holes for the use of riflemen. The battery was placed in front of the locomotive.
Moyamensing Hall, on Christian Street between Ninth and Tenth, was fitted up as a military hospital, and was in operation on the 6th of May, only one patient, however, having been received. The medical staff consisted of Dr. John Neill, medical director; and Drs. Francis G. Smith, S.S. Hollingsworth, John McClellan, and Ellerslie Wallace, aids; Drs. John Brinton, John Packard, George C. Harlan, and F.W. Lewis, assistant surgeons; and Dr. C.H. Boardman, resident physician.
Right Rev. Alonzo Potter, D.D., bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, issued an appeal to the clergy and laity of his jurisdiction, early in May, expressing the hope that chaplains "men of the right stamp" would be numerous, and that Testaments, Bibles, and tracts would be supplied to the volunteers in liberal measure. It was the earnest desire, added Bishop Potter, to offer a copy of the prayer-book to every Pennsylvania volunteer who might be willing to receive it, but, in order to accomplish this object, it needed additional contributions. Bishop Potter accordingly recommended that in every congregation a special contribution should be taken up to aid in the work.
On the afternoon of the 7th of May the Twentieth New York Regiment, Col. G.W. Pratt, arrived en route for the South.
The First Artillery Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Francis E. Patterson, composed of old and regular organizations of militia, left the city for the South on the 8th of May. The regiment formed at Washington Square at eight o'clock in the morning. A large assemblage of spectators had congregated at the square, and the route of march to the depot was lined with people. At nine o'clock the regiment, headed by a fine band and drum corps, started for the depot. As it passed the Franklin Hose-house, on Broad Street, the hose-carriage was brought out into the street, and the bells rang out a merry peal. At the depot many painful scenes were enacted while friends and relatives were taking leave of the departing soldiers. Thousands of persons accompanied the cars as far as Gray's Ferry bridge, being able, without difficulty, to keep up with the train. The other regiments which had received orders to move at the same time as Col. Patterson's received contrary orders during the night, but were instructed to hold themselves in readiness for marching at any time. On the afternoon of the same day the Third Regiment United States Infantry, commanded by Maj. Sheppard, passed through Philadelphia on its way to the South. The Philadelphia regiment passed through Baltimore on the 9th, accompanied by the Third United States Infantry and Sherman's Battery.
The work of reconstructing the bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad was commenced, with a large force of workmen, on the 10th of May.
At a meeting of the Ladies' Union Relief Association held on the 8th of May, a statement of the work accomplished by the society, the receipts and expenditures, etc., was made. The chief object of the organization was to supply needy volunteers with a second outfit of clothing and other necessary articles. The officers were: President, Mrs. M.P. Ketterlinus; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Parker and Mrs. Neff; Secretaries, Miss Baird and Miss Pauline Roberts; Treasurer, Mrs. Dorsey; Distributors of Outfits, Mrs. Whiteman and Mrs. Patterson.
The First Regiment of Infantry, Col. William D. Lewis, Jr., paraded on the 9th of May, and was presented with two flags from lady friends of the members. After marching from Broad and Chestnut Streets down Broad to Walnut to Eighteenth to Chestnut, and down the latter street, they halted at the United States Mint. Here Col. Lewis and staff left the line and mounted the steps for the purpose of receiving the colors, a national and a State flag,which were presented by David Paul Brown. After an address by Mr. Brown, and a brief acknowledgment from Col. Lewis, Rev. Dr. Ducachet, rector of St. Stephen's Protestant Episcopal Church, and chaplain of the regiment, blessed both flags and kissed them. The regiment then took up the line of march again to its quarters and was dismissed.
Col. Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame, arrived in Philadelphia again on the 10th of May, accompanied by Mrs. Abraham Lincoln, who was on her way to Boston. A committee of the City Councils, consisting of Messrs. Craig, Dougherty, Smedley, and MeMakln, of Select Council, and Messrs. Peale, Case, Cattell, and Queen, of Common Council, met the colonel at the railroad depot, and, after an interchange of civilities, escorted him to the Continental Hotel, where he was received by Theodore Cuyler, president of Select Council. On the following day (May 11th) Col. Anderson was formally received by the mayor and City Councils at Independence Hall. He was escorted from the hotel by a military procession, consisting of the Black Hussars, Captain Beaker, Philadelphia Light Guards, Col. Morehead, and the National Guards, Col. Lyle. The line was formed on Ninth Street, and when Col. Anderson made his appearance and took his place in an open barouche, drawn by four white horses, he was greeted with deafening cheers by the immense crowd which had congregated there. All along the route to Independence Hall he was repeatedly and enthusiastically cheered. At the hall the mayor and both branches of the City Councils were in waiting, together with the venerable Commodore Charles Stewart, Col. C.G. Childs, Col. Pleasonton, Rev. Drs. Ducachet and Boardman, and other leading members of the community. As Col. Anderson entered the hall, accompanied by Mr. Cuyler, president of Select Council, he was received by Mayor Henry, who welcomed him in terms highly eulogistic of his conduct at Fort Sumter. Col. Anderson replied briefly, after which the persons present were introduced to him. Before leaving the hall he entered his name on the visitors' book, "Robert Anderson, Colonel U.S.A., Kentucky," and then exclaimed to those near by, "Thank God, she is still in the United States!" After he had returned to his carriage, the military marched past, honoring him with a salute, and when the line had filed by a gentleman stepped forward, and, on behalf of Miss Albright, presented Col. Anderson with a handsome national flag. He took it and waved it, and as he did so the band struck up the "Star-Spangled Banner," amid the enthusiastic cheers of the multitude. In the afternoon Col. Anderson left Philadelphia for New York.
On the 13th of May the repairs to the bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad had been completed, and two passenger trains passed through to Baltimore during the day and evening.
The First City Troop, Philadelphia's ancient cavalry company, was mustered into the service of the United States on the 13th. The troop numbered eighty-five men, and its officers were: Captain, Thomas C. James; First Lieutenant, Richard Butler Price; Second Lieutenant, William Camac; First Sergeant Lieutenant, Richard C. Devereaux; Second Sergeants, William D. Smith, Charles F. Taggart, and Fairman Rogers.
On the 14th of May the First Regiment National Guards, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Peter Lyle, the Philadelphia Light Guards Regiment, Col. Turner G. Morehead, and the First Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. William D. Lewis, Jr., left Philadelphia for the South. The scenes of excitement and enthusiasm which attended the departure of Col. Patterson's regiment were repeated. The regiments proceeded by rail to Perryville, where they were transferred to steamers for Baltimore, where they were stationed for some time.
A musical entertainment was given at the Academy of Music on the evening of the 16th of May by the pupils of Zane Street (Female) Grammar School, the proceeds to be devoted to the formation of a fund for the relief of volunteers. The feature of the evening was the singing of the "Star-Spangled Banner."
Suffolk Park, a race-course in the southwestern portion of Philadelphia, was used as camping-ground for troops, and was given the name of "Camp McClellan." Two regiments from Ohiothe First Regiment, Col. A.D. McCook, and the Second Regiment, Col. Wilson were the first organizations to occupy it, and during their stay the camp was visited daily by thousands of people from Philadelphia. On the 17th of May one of the regiments (the Second Ohio) was presented with a stand of colors by Col. Bradford, representing citizens of Philadelphia. At Hestonville, a suburb of Philadelphia, another camp was estab1ished about the same time with the name of "Camp Owen," in honor of the commander of the Irish regiment of Pennsylvania volunteers located there. The Ohio regiments left Philadelphia for the South on the 23d.
The Fourteenth (New York) Regiment, or Brooklyn Chasseurs, Col. A.M. Wood, arrived May 19th, on their way to Washington.
Three small schooners, the "Mary Willis," "Emily Ann," and "Delaware Farmer," were towed to the navy-yard on the night of the 17th of May by the propeller "Live Yankee" from the mouth of the James River, Va., where they had been captured by the United States blockading squadron. They were loaded with tobacco and pig-lead, which, they were taking from Richmond to Baltimore. They were the first prizes of the war that were taken to Philadelphia. On the 25th, Judge Cadwalader, of the United States District Court, released them, on the ground that the fifteen days allowed by the blockading proclamation had not expired at the time of the seizure.
In the Presbyterian General Assembly (0.S.), which was in session in Philadelphia during the month of May, a resolution was offered by Rev. Dr. Spring on the 18th, that "a special committee be appointed to inquire into the expediency of this Assembly making some expression of their devotion to the Union of these States and their loyalty to the government, and if in their judgment it is expedient to do so, they report what that expression shall be." The resolution was laid on the table by a vote of one hundred and twenty-three yeas to one hundred and two nays. Toward the close of the meeting, however, a call was read, inviting such members of the Assembly as felt a desire to give expression to their loyalty to the Union to meet in the basement of the church. This meeting was organized by the election of Rev. William C. Anderson, of San Francisco, chairman, and Rev. J.D. Smith, of Columbus, Ohio, secretary. A committee to prepare business was appointed, after which the meeting adjourned, subject to the call of the chairman.
In the United States District Court, on the 20th of May, Judge Cadwalader addressed the grand jury, defining the nature of treason and misprision of treason, and charging them that all questions arising under these heads should be considered with calmness and caution.
The Second New York Regiment passed through the city on the 20th of May, going South. It was enthusiastically cheered as it marched through the streets.
Another naval prize, a fine ship called the "General Parkhill," belonging to parties of Charleston, S.C., was brought into port on the 21st of May by Midshipman W. Scott Schley. The "General Park-hill" was captured off Charleston by the United States vessel "Niagara."
On the 21st the Scott Legion Regiment, Col. Gray, attended Rev. Dr. Boardman's church, at Twelfth and Walnut Streets, for the purpose of hearing a discourse by the pastor, preparatory to the regiment's departure from the city.
When, on the 23d of May, the announcement was made in the Presbyterian General Assembly that the "record" of the Synod of South Carolina had been received, a scene of subdued excitement followed. Rev. Dr. Bergen, who submitted the record, said he rejoiced to learn from it that certain preambles and resolutions of a character unfriendly to the United States government had been laid upon the table by a vote of seventy-seven to twenty-one, and that a resolution to take up the matter again had been overruled. The committee appointed to draft resolutions expressing the sentiments of the Synod had reported that " the Synod of South Carolina is one of thirty-three which comprise the Old-School Presbyterian Church of this country; and from our brethren of the whole church annually assembled we have received nothing but justice and courtesy." The committee of the Assembly on Synodical Records recommended that the report from South Carolina be adopted, on the whole, with the exception of the following passage: "The act of 1818 was adopted by the South of that day as well as by the North, but has been since virtually rescinded." A motion to strike out this clause gave rise to a debate, which was postponed, the Assembly finally adopting the record, with the exception of a clause concerning the political action of South Carolina. On the 24th an exciting debate occurred on a series of resolutions introduced by Rev. Dr. Spring, two days before, appointing the 4th of July as a day of general prayer, petitioning God "to turn away his anger from us and speedily restore to us the blessings of a safe and honorable peace," and declaring that, "in the judgment of this Assembly, it is the duty of the ministers and churches under its care to do all in their power to promote and perpetuate the integrity of these United States, and to strengthen, uphold, and encourage the Federal government." Speeches were made by Rev. Dr. Thomas, of Ohio; Mr. Gillespie, of Tennessee; J.G. Bergen, of Illinois; and Rev. Dr. Hodge, of Princeton. Rev. Dr. Hodge offered as a substitute for Dr. Spring's resolutions an elaborate paper professing amicable feelings toward the members of the denomination at the South, but at the same time declaring that "both religion and patriotism require us to cherish a union which, by God's blessing, may yet be a powerful and beneficial means of reuniting the broken links of our political Union, and spreading peace and joy over a grateful land." Dr. Spring's resolutions were strongly advocated by Dr. Anderson, of San Francisco; Dr. Spring; Judge Ryerson, of New Jersey; Rev. Mr. Hastings, of Pennsylvania; and Rev. Dr. Musgrave, of Kentucky; and were opposed by Rev. Mr. Watt, of Pennsylvania, and Professor Hoyt, of Nashville, Tenn. Before a vote was reached the Assembly adjourned for the day. On the following morning the debate was resumed, and Rev. Dr. E.C. Wines read a dispatch from Hon. Edward Bates, Attorney-General of the United States, in which Mr. Bates said he thought the best thing the Assembly could do to strengthen the government and maintain the Union was "to preserve the unity of the Presbyterian Church by abstaining from any deliberation upon the present troubles." In conformity with this advice Dr. Wines offered a resolution, that "the General Assembly deem it injudicious at the present time to give any formal expression touching upon the existing crisis, and therefore the matter be indefinitely postponed." Judge Allen, of Ohio, then addressed the Assembly in favor of Dr. Spring's resolution, but suggested that the second resolution should be amended by providing that the Assembly would support the government "in the just exercise of all its functions under our noble Constitution." Dr. Spring accepted the amendment. Rev. Mr. Matthews, of Kentucky, then spoke on the resolutions, commencing with, "Mr. Moderator, It is, sir, with great pleasure that it is known that the State from which I come unfurls the stars and stripes of our government." At this point Mr. Matthews was interrupted by a wild outburst of mingled hisses and applause. "The house," says a contemporaneous account, "was thrown into a perfect furor. Cheers, with clapping of hands and stamping, commingled with hissing, were almost deafening in effect." It was with great difficulty that the moderator succeeded in restoring order. A prolonged discussion resulted, and no action was taken prior to adjournment. Another debate ensued on the 27th, in the course of which Dr. Spring offered a substitute for his resolution, pledging the Assembly to support the government, as follows:
"Resolved, That this General Assembly, in the spirit of that Christian patriotism which the Scriptures enjoin, and which has always characterized this church, do hereby acknowledge and declare an obligation to promote and perpetuate the integrity of these United States, and to strengthen, and uphold and encourage the Federal Constitution, in the exercise of all its functions under a noble Constitution. Various substitutes for and modifications of Dr. Spring's resolutions were proposed from day to day and the discussion was kept up with much energy and warmth. On the 29th a telegram from Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, was read in the Assembly, stating that he could perceive "no valid objection to unequivocal expressions," on the part of the Assembly, "in favor of the Constitution and freedom." A substitute for Dr. Spring's resolution, recommended by a special committee to whom they had been referred, was rejected on the 29th of May, by a vote of eighty-four to one hundred and twenty-five, and the resolutions, as proposed and amended by Dr. Spring, were adopted by a vote of one hundred and fifty-four to sixty-six. A protest against the action of the Assembly, which was signed by over forty members, was filed on the following day. The adoption of Dr. Spring's resolutions was characterized in this protest as "a great national calamity, as well as the most disastrous to the interest of the church which has marked its history."
Saturday, May 25th, was a day of great excitement in Philadelphia, owing to the reception of news that the Federal army had on the previous day commenced its march into Virginia, and that Col. Ellsworth, commander of "Ellsworth's Zouaves," had been shot and killed at Alexandria. At half-past nine o'clock on the evening of the same day a train arrived at Philadelphia bearing Col. Ellsworth's remains, accompanied by a guard of honor consisting of seven Zouaves. Among them was Francis E. Brownell, the man who shot Col. Ellsworth's murderer, and who had with him the secession flag cut down from the "Marshall House," Alexandria, by Col. Ellsworth. The body was taken from the Baltimore Depot to the New York Depot at Kensington, where a special train was in waiting. Although it was not generally known that Col. Ellsworth's body would be brought to Philadelphia, there was a large crowd at the depot, and the Pennsylvania Rangers, Captain Davis, were in attendance; Mayor Henry was also present. At the request of the committee which accompanied the remains, representing the citizens of Chicago and the New York fire department, no other escort was provided, except the guard of honor, composed of Zouaves, the committees, and a squad of policemen. As the cortege passed out of the building every head was uncovered.
On the 27th of May it was announced that the Charity Hospital had been offered to the City Council for the use of the volunteers, and had been accepted.
At the breaking out of the war gray was generally used for uniforming the volunteer regiments, but after experience in the field it was found that great confusion and danger resulted from the similarity of the Confederate uniforms, the troops of the enemy being frequently mistaken for friends, and Union regiments for bodies of the enemy. The change to blue, as the regulation color for uniforms, was made very gradually, and for some time after the battle of Bull Run gray clothing continued to be dealt out to the Pennsylvania volunteers. Among the first regiments to adopt gray uniforms was the Gray Reserves of Philadelphia, Col. P.C Ellmaker.
On Thursday, May 30th, there was a general movement of troops from Philadelphia toward Chambersburg and other points in Southern Pennsylvania, preparatory to an advance on Harper's Ferry, Va. Among the commands ordered to the front was the historic First City Troop, Captain Thomas C. James, which left Philadelphia on the 30th.
In Select Council, on the 30th of May, a resolution was adopted requesting the mayor to tender to lieutenant Slemmer, the defender of Fort Pickens, the use of Independence Hall for the purpose of receiving his friends. In the Common Council, on the same day, an ordinance was adopted authorizing a loan not exceeding one million dollars for the relief of families of volunteers.
On the 2nd of June, Maj.-Gen. Robert Patterson left Philadelphia for Chambersburg, to take charge of the Federal advance into Virginia by way of Harper's Ferry.
The Presbyterian General Assembly adjourned on the 1st of June. In dissolving the Assembly the moderator, Rev. Dr. Backus, said the church had, during the session just ended, passed through the severest ordeal it had ever had to encounter. With a firm reliance in God he hoped that prosperity and harmony would soon again prevail throughout the country. He then delivered a fervent prayer asking for a special blessing upon all the members of the Assembly.
On the 4th of June it was announced that the Pennsylvania Regiment of Independent Riflemen had been thoroughly reorganized, with the following staff: Colonel, E.G. Chorman; Lieutenant-Colonel, S.M. Ramsey; Major, A.E. Griffith; Adjutant, N.W. Kneass; Quartermaster, W.M. Singerly; Surgeon, H. Ernest Goodman; Assistant Surgeon, David G. Bowman; Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Egan. About the same time the organization of Col. William F. Small's regiment was completed, with the following officers: Colonel, William F. Small; Lieutenant-Colonel, Rush Van Dyke; Major, Casper M. Berry; Quartermaster, John Adler; Quartermaster-Sergeant, William Dickinson; Adjutant, Joseph Dickinson; Sergeant-Major, George Wigner; Chaplain, Rev. Charles A. Beck; Commissary-Sergeant, Robert L. Bodine; Assistant Surgeon, John W. Mintzer; Hospital Steward, Luther Gerhard; Sutler, J.L. Gihon.
The Union troops in passing through the city received many kind attentions from citizens of Philadelphia, especially from the ladies in the lower section of the city. A number of families residing in the vicinity of Washington Street Depot made it a rule to deal out coffee, sandwiches, etc., to the soldiers on their arrival at that point. Persons wishing to aid them in their patriotic work were requested to send contributions of money, coffee, sugar, hams, etc., to 110 South Street. In order to notify the ladies of the expected arrival of troops guns were fired, each gun representing the hour of the expected arrival of the soldiers. By this arrangement persons in the district inclined to assist in the preparation of food, knew at what period they should be ready.
At the commencement of the June term of the Court of Quarter Sessions, on the 3d, Judge Allison called the attention of the grand jury to the bill, then recently passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, providing for the punishment of those residents of the State who extended aid and comfort to the enemies of the Union, or accepted commissions in the Confederate service, or aided in procuring or furnishing vessels for the Southern privateer service. In this connection Judge Allison said, "The mere expression of opinions, spoken or written, adverse to the government and the war waged by it in defense of the unity and integrity of the States composing it, unless such written declarations assume the form of a traitorous correspondence with the enemies at war with this State or the United States, however ill-advised such conduct may be at the present juncture of affairs, is not an offense punishable under the act of Assembly, though it may reasonably be regarded as subjecting the person thus acting to a well-grounded suspicion of disloyalty, of being at heart a traitor, wanting but the opportunity to consummate his treason, though not liable to indictment. The law punishes only the overt act, and if it comes to your knowledge as grand jurors that any one belonging to or residing within this jurisdiction has offended against the law to which I have called your attention, let such an one be presented without 'fear, favor, or affection,' that the law may be vindicated, the hands of the government strengthened, and the guilty brought to speedy and condign punishment."
On the 4th of June the cases of three Baltimoreans charged with being concerned in the destruction of bridges on the Northern Central Railroad came up before Judge Cadwalader, of the United States District Court, on an application by their counsel for a writ of habeas corpus. George H. Williams, of Baltimore, one of their counsel, had come on to Philadelphia, but having seen an article in a Sunday newspaper counseling the men of Gen. Small's command to hang him on account of his supposed complicity in the Baltimore riot of the 19th of April, and having received anonymous warnings to the same effect, he determined to return to Baltimore. Accordingly, when the cases were called he did not make his appearance in court. On being informed of the cause, Judge Cadwalader said that ample protection would have been afforded Mr. Williams had he applied for it. Mr. Wharton, another of the counsel for the defense, then announced that just before coming to court he had received a letter from Mr. Williams stating that, by orders of the War Department, the petitioners had been discharged, and that they were at their homes in Maryland.
In the local newspapers of June 5th it was announced that the government had purchased the steamer "Keystone State," which had formerly plied between Philadelphia and Charleston, S.C., and which carried the Pennsylvania delegation to that city to attend the Democratic national convention, with the view of converting her into a gun-boat, to be commanded by Commander S. D. Trenchard, carrying thirty-two-pounders and two nine inch guns.
Early in June, Governor Curtin appointed a commission, consisting of B. Haywood, Jacob Fry, Jr., Charles F. Abbott, Caleb Cope, and Evans Rogers, to investigate the alleged frauds in furnishing supplies to the troops at Philadelphia.
Orders were received at the navy-yard on the 5th directing that the work of constructing one of the new sloops-of-war ordered by Congress should be commenced forthwith. The vessel was to be constructed after the drawings and models of the "Wyoming," one of the finest ships ever launched, at this yard.
At a special meeting of the Democratic City Executive Committee, held on the 5th of June, to take action concerning the death of Senator Stephen A. Douglas, a series of suitable resolutions was adopted, and it was determined to send a copy of them to the family of the deceased "as an evidence of the sentiments of his party in Philadelphia." Similar action was taken in Common Council on the 6th of June.
The field and staff officers of the Philadelphia Light Artillery Regiment, which had been accepted by the United States government for three years or the war, were announced on the 6th of June to be the following: Colonel, Max Einstein; Lieutenant-Colonel, Charles Angeroth; Major, William Schoenleber; Adjutant, Shreve Ackley; Aide-de-Camp, Charles K. Doran, M.D.; Quartermaster, Frederick Breitinger; Surgeon, H. Heller; Assistant Surgeon, M. Heller, Jr.; Sergeant-Major, Worthington Cromline, Jr.; Quartermaster-Sergeant, B. Reiter; Commissary-Sergeant, A. Gollem; Regimental Ensign, Herman Heymann; Drum-Major, C. Bassler.
On the 7th of June four companies, mustered into the service of the State under the command of Capts. J.C. Chapman, John H. Taggart, C.S. Preall, and Casper Martino, left the city for Camp Curtin, Harrisburg.
The United States sloop-of-war "Jamestown," Captain Charles R. Green, left the navy-yard on the 9th of June for the Gulf of Mexico to form one of the blockading squadron there.
On the 11th of June a public reception was given to lieutenant Slemmer, commander at Fort Pickens, at Independence Hall. At eleven o'clock Col. Small's regiment formed on Ninth Street near the Continental Hotel, and Company G, Captain Adams, was detailed as a guard of honor. lieutenant Slemmer was escorted to Independence Hall, where he was received by Mayor Henry, to whose address of welcome and congratulations the lieutenant briefly repl
e, and Julian Myers, of the "Hartford," and D.A. Forest, of the sloop-of-war "John Adams," who had been transferred to the "Hartford," were arrested on the charge of disloyalty, in having refused to take the oath of allegiance, and sent to Fort Warren. Three of them were natives of Virginia and one of Georgia. On the 7th the United States steamer "Keystone State," Commander LeRoy, sailed under sealed orders, and the sloop-of-war "Tuscarora," Captain A.M. Craven, left for New York to receive a portion of her armament.
Early in December an organization known as the "Soldiers' Relief Association of the Episcopal Church" was formed, for the purpose of providing articles for the relief of sick soldiers not supplied by the government.
The colored residents of the city about this time petitioned the managers of city passenger railways for the privilege of riding in the street-cars. They represented that they suffered great inconvenience and hardship in being excluded from the cars; that in all the principal Northern cities except Philadelphia the colored people were permitted to ride in them, and that they paid more taxes than the same class in any Northern city.
Two interesting flag presentations occurred on the 6th and 7th of December. On the 6th the Philadelphia regiments commanded by Cols. Gregory, Rush, Lyle, Staunton, and Jones assembled in a field opposite the Odd-Fellows' Cemetery to receive from Governor Curtin the flags purchased with the State appropriation and the fund provided by the Society of the Cincinnati. A platform was erected for the Governor and staff and members of the society and invited guests. Among the prominent military men present in uniform were Gen. Robert Patterson, Gen. George Cadwalader, Gen. Francis E. Patterson, and Gen. A.J. Pleasonton. The regiments to which the colors were presented were drawn up in the following order in front of the platform: Ninety-first Regiment, Col. Gregory; Sixty-seventh Regiment, Col. Staunton; Ninetieth Regiment, Col. Lyle; Fifty-eighth Regiment, Col. Jones; and Sixth Regiment Cavalry, Col. Rush. In order to receive the colors the colonels of the different regiments rode up in front of the platform, and were addressed by Governor Curtin, who then handed each the flag belonging to his command. Dr. McEuen, vice-president of the Society of the Cincinnati, also delivered an address. On the 7th a flag made by the sailors and marines of the United States vessel "Hartford" was presented to the city of Philadelphia at Independence Hall. The sailors and marines formed in line at the navy-yard and marched to the hall, bearing the flag spread out. Their spokesman, a sailor named Samuel H. Adams, presented the flag to Mayor Henry, accompanying the act with a brief and patriotic speech, which was responded to in suitable terms by the mayor.
The new gun-boat "Itasca," Captain C.H.B. Colwell, left the navy-yard December 7th. On the following day the steamer "Delaware," built at Wilmington, Del., and purchased by the government, sailed.
On the 5th of December it was announced that the United States government had leased for hospital purposes the railroad depot at the southeast corner of Broad and Cherry Streets, the large manufactory corner of Twenty-second and Wood Streets, a building at Twenty-third and Lombard Streets, and Dunlap's carriage factory, Fifth Street and York Avenue. These hospitals were fitted up under direction of Dr. John Neill, surgeon United States army, who had previously established a hospital at Moyamensing Hall, which at this time was in active operation.
The regiment of cavalry or lancers commanded by Col. Richard H. Rush paraded on the 10th of December, preparatory to their departure for the seat of war. The men were armed with lances in addition to their pistols and sabres, each lance having a small red flag or pennon near the end, presented by lady friends of the regiment.
Horn R. Kneass, a well-known member of the bar, died on the 12th of December. He had for many years been an active member of the Democratic party, and was twice nominated for district attorney. The first time he was declared elected, but the opposing candidate successfully contested the election. At one time Mr. Kneass held the office of Grand Master of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows in Pennsylvania, and also Grand Sire of the order throughout the Union.
December 14th it was announced that Christ Church Hospital, on Forty-eighth Street below Cumberland, which was commenced in 1856, had been entirely finished. The grounds attached to the building covered an area of one hundred and eighteen acres. The edifice was of solid gray stone, covered by a heavy slate roof and surmounted by handsome towers and steeples.
Captain Wilkes, of Mason and Slidell fame, arrived here on the 12th of December. Seated nearly opposite Captain Wilkes at the supper-table in the Continental Hotel on the following evening was Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, of Virginia, ex-minister to France, who had just been released from Fort Warren, where he had been confined as a prisoner-of-war. Mr. Faulkner during his stay in the city visited Moyamensing prison, in order to examine into the condition of the privateersmen imprisoned there. He afterward stated that the prisoners had expressed themselves as perfectly satisfied with the treatment they had received.
William Sharkey, of the crew of the Confederate privateer "Petrel," was released in two thousand dollars bail about December 15th on account of the delicate state of his health. He was quite young, and claimed to have been impressed into the service.
In the latter part of December the construction of the iron submarine battery presented to the United States government by E.A. Stevens, of Hoboken, was completed. The battery had originally been the iron steamer "Quinnebaug," but after Mr. Stevens' offer had been accepted by the government the vessel was brought to the ship-yard of Neafie & Levy, where her engines were overhauled and new boilers placed in her. At Bordentown, N.J., to which place she was taken from Neafie & Levy's yard, bulwarks of white cedar were added, two feet thick outside the hull and one foot thick inside, extending three feet ten inches above the deck and four feet below. The bulwarks were covered with plates of wrought iron, and the bow of the vessel was protected by a mass of timber and iron four feet thick and four feet above deck, placed at such an angle that a ball, if it struck this part of the vessel, would glance off without doing material damage. By means of water-tight compartments, into which water could be introduced, the vessel could be submerged until there was seventeen inches of water over the deck, so that nothing was visible to the enemy but the outline of the hull, marked by the bulwarks unsubmerged and the single gun which constituted the vessel's only armament. This gun, a one-hundred-pounder of the Parrott patent, was placed in the centre of the vessel upon a dais, surrounded by a high combing to prevent the water from reaching it. The gun-carriage, which was the design of Mr. Stevens, was so arranged that the gun recoiled on a centre-piece, upon which was placed gutta-percha sufficiently heavy to receive the whole force of the concussion, permitting the gun to move only a trifling distance. The gun was loaded by men standing in the hold; the muzzle being lowered to the combing and the ammunition put in and rammed home. The gun was then elevated and fired by the man on deck. The vessel had two engines, each working independently and each giving power to a screw-propeller, so that by reversing one engine and moving the other ahead the vessel was turned round almost within her own length.
Up to December 23d the following war-vessels had been built at Philadelphia since the commencement of hostilities: at the navy-yard the sloopsof war "Miami" and "Tuscarora," finished, and the "Juniata," nearly ready for launching; at private ship-yards the gunboats "Wissahickon" (built by John W. Lynn), "Scioto" (built by Jacob Birely), and the "Itasca" (built by Hillman & Streaker), a bark built by Charles Williams, purchased by the government, and fitted out as a gun-boat, and the "Stars and Stripes," built by Simpson & Neill, and transformed into the gun-boat "Kittanning." The keel of the sloop-of-war "Monongahela" had also been laid at the navy-yard.
In reply to a letter from Mayor Henry inquiring what provision could be made by the State authorities for strengthening the defenses of the city, Hon. William M. Meredith, Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, stated that besides the arms which in the course of the previous summer had been distributed among the border counties, and those with which portions of the State's quota of volunteers had been supplied, the State had still about nineteen thousand muskets and rifles, and it was thought that probably some ten thousand more could be collected. Five thousand of these, he added, would be promptly furnished to volunteer organizations formed in Philadelphia on a basis approved by the Governor. Of artillery the State had still fifty-seven pieces, varying from twenty-eight-pounders to six-pounders, of which as many as might be needed would be sent to the city. A sufficient supply of fixed ammunition could be furnished from the arsenal at Harrisburg. With regard to the defense of the maritime and harbor approaches of the city, he stated that it was the intention of the Governor to visit Washington to urge an increase of the appropriation by Congress, and an extension of the plan for such defenses. On the 27th of December, Mayor Henry received a letter from Attorney-General Meredith stating that Governor Curtin had obtained a promise from Gen. Totten, at the head of the Engineer Department at Washington, that one hundred and thirty-five large guns and twenty flanking twenty-four-pound howitzers would be mounted on Fort Delaware and forty-seven large guns on Fort Mifflin.
The market-house and hall at Seventeenth and Poplar Streets was completed in the latter part of December. The building had a front of fifty-four feet on Poplar Street, and a depth of ninety-three feet to Seventeenth Street. The lower story was used as a market, and the upper story as a hall.
On the 27th of December, Col. Mulligan, of the Missouri Irish Brigade, who had distinguished himself at the battle of Lexington, Mo., on the 12th Of September, delivered a lecture at National Hall describing that engagement, for the benefit of St. John's Orphan Asylum. He was enthusiastically received.
The banks of Philadelphia, in common with those of New York and Boston, suspended specie payments on the 30th of December.
Right Rev. William Bacon Stevens, D.D., was consecrated assistant bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania on the 2nd of January, at St. Andrew's Church. The sermon was preached by Bishop Clark, of Rhode Island, and the bishop-elect was presented to the presiding bishop by the bishop of Pennsylvania, Right Rev. Alonzo Potter, D.D., and the bishop of New York, Right Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D.
On the 6th of January the drug-store of G.W. Lewis, 45 South Fourth Street, and the establishment of William Mann, stationer and blank-book manufacturer, were damaged by fire to the extent of seventy-five thousand dollars.
Gen. James Shields arrived on the 6th of January with three companies of regular troops from the Pacific coast. He supped at the Cooper-Shop Refreshment Saloon, and at the invitation of the managers inspected their hospital.
The new City Councils, which met on the 6th of January, organized by electing Theodore Cuyler president of Select, and Wilson Kerr president of Common, Council. In the latter body two sets of officers were elected at first, the Democrats choosing Wilson Kerr, and the People's party J.A. Freeman, as president. The double election resulted from a disagreement as to the result of the election for councilmen in the Nineteenth Ward. The members of the People's party had the certificates of election, but the Democratic members claimed the seats as having been legally elected, with the fraudulent army vote thrown out. A proposition was finally adopted by which the claimants from the Nineteenth Ward withdrew and allowed the organization to be perfected by the election of the Democratic nominees, with the understanding that the question as to who were entitled to the seats should be referred to a committee for its decision; the claimants decided against reserving the right to contest their claim under the act of Assembly. This committee subsequently reported in favor of the Democratic claimants, who were admitted.
Two bomb-boats for the United States service, the "George Maughan" and "Adolph Hugel," were fitted out at the navy-yard, and received their mortars and stores early in January.
At a meeting of the survivors of the war of 1812, held on the 8th of January, William T. Elder presiding, Col. Childs presented the heading of a muster-roll of a company of volunteers to be formed out of the surviving soldiers of that war. It was stated that a number of signatures had been obtained, and several members of the association expressed their willingness to shoulder a musket and march wherever their country needed their services.
In a report of the work accomplished by the Union Volunteer Refreshment Committee, which was published on the 14th of January, it was stated that meals had been furnished to over one hundred thousand soldiers, and that five hundred sick and wounded had been cared for. The report was signed by Arad Barrows, chairman, and J.B. Wade, secretary.
The train from Baltimore that reached Philadelphia at noon on the 15th of January brought about two hundred and thirty released prisoners, captured by the Confederates at Bull Run. The men were met at the depot by a committee from the two volunteer refreshment saloons, to which they were escorted, and where they were entertained.
Owing to a reduction of wages ordered by Congress, the ship-carpenters and other mechanics at the navy-yard struck on the 16th of January, but resumed work on the 22nd.
The United States gun-boat" Rhode Island," S.D. Trenchard, lieutenant-commander, which sailed from New York on the 5th of December on a cruise to the Gulf of Mexico, arrived at the navy-yard on the 17th of January. The "Rhode Island" had captured, off Galveston, the Confederate schooner "Venus," the crew of which she had on board, together with her passengers. A number of United States naval officers came on the "Rhode Island" as passengers, having been transferred from other vessels. A number of invalidssoldiers and sailorswere sent home on the "Rhode Island" in care of Dr. W. Lamont Wheeler, United States navy.
The Philadelphia Associates of the Sanitary Commission, about the middle of January, adopted a series of resolutions urging the reorganization of the Army Medical Department, so that in addition to the proper regulation of a well-selected corps of surgeons, the military rank of the superior medical officers might be elevated and an adequate staff of hospital and camp inspectors of suitable standing and authority provided. Senator Wilson's bill, then before Congress, was indorsed as being a move in the right direction, and a committee was appointed, consisting of Morton McMichael, J.I. Clark Hare, Dr. John H. McClellan, Dr. F. Gurney Smith, John Welsh, and Dr. Alfred Stille, to proceed to Washington with a copy of the resolutions and submit them to the proper authorities.
The Fifty-eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. J.R. Jones, was filled up to the standard by consolidating with it the regiment commanded by Col. Curtis. The other Philadelphia regiments, organized by Cols. Gregory, Lyle, Staunton, and Price, were filled up with troops from other commands by order of Governor Curtin.
The sloop-of-war "Hartford" sailed for the Gulf of Mexico on the 19th of January, under the command of Captain R. Wainwright, as the flag-ship of Commodore Farragut's squadron.
On the 23d of January it was announced that a reward of five hundred dollars would be paid by Mayor Henry for the discovery of the persons implicated in the murder of John Connelly, who was fatally stabbed on the night of January 8th at the corner of Twenty-fourth and Biddle Streets. On the 12th of February, John Malloy was arrested on the charge of being concerned in the murder.
The Count of Paris, one of the Orleans princes, who was serving on the staff of Gen. McClellan, visited the city on Sunday, January 26th, in company with Hon. William H. Seward, Secretary of State, and remained several days. During his stay he visited the grave of Benjamin Franklin, in Christ Church burying-ground.
The first train passed over the new bridge of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at Gray's Ferry, and down to Washington Street wharf, on the 27th of January.
The United States steamer "Miami" sailed on her trial trip on the 29th of January. The vessel carried a heavy armament, one of her guns being an eighty-pound rifled cannon and another an eleven-inch-shell gun. Her broadside battery consisted of four twenty-four-pound howitzers. The commander of the "Miami" was Lieutenant-Commander A.D. Harrall.
William Gilchrist, who was arrested in September, 1861, on the charge of having sold munitions of war to the South and sent to Fort Lafayette, and afterward to Fort Warren, and upon his release by order of the government rearrested in Boston and committed for trial, was before Judge Cadwalader on the 29th of January on a writ of habeas corpus. Gilchrist was remanded to stand his trial at the following term of court.
In his annual message to City Councils, submitted on the 30th of January, Mayor Henry stated that the sum of $138,506.36 had been expended during the year for the purchase of arms, ammunition, and other requisites of military service, and that the entire disbursement from the relief fund amounted to $356,612.78. With regard to the finances of the city, the mayor stated that at the beginning of the year 1861 the loans of the city were readily sold at a small premium, but as national disorders became more imminent their market value depreciated, particularly when forced into competition with a United States loan yielding seven and three-tenths percent. interest. An ordinance approved June 8th gave authority to borrow $1,000,000 to make provision for the defense of the city, and for the relief of the families of volunteers, without the usual limitation to a par value, and of such loan $498,500 was sold as needed at the average rate of ninety-two and one-tenth per cent., producing $459,690 net avails. A further loan of $42,500 was enacted by ordinance of May 3d, to be borrowed at not less than par, and by ordinance of December 14th, a loan of $1,200,000 was created; $117,000 thereof for the construction of Chestnut Street bridge, and the remainder for the payment of deficiencies without restriction of price.
In a report to Mayor Henry in January, Gen. A.J. Pleasonton, commander of the Home Guard, stated that the organization then numbered some four thousand men, comprising three regiments of infantry of the line, two battalions of rifles, three companies of artillery, and one squadron of cavalry. With regard to the artillery arm of the service Gen. Pleasonton said, "Two batteries of Parrott's rifled cannon, each of six guns, have been purchased by the committee, one battery being often-pounders, the other of twenty-pounders. Both these batteries can take the field at once. There are also two cast-steel Prussian rifled guns, which were presented to the city by Mr. James Swaim, gun-carriages and caissons for which have been bought by the committee. James McHenry, of Liverpool, also generously presented to the city a cast-steel rifled gun of the Blakely pattern, the carriage and caisson for which Henry Simons patriotically tendered as a gift to the city."
The United States sloop-of-war "St. Louis," Captain Matthias C. Mann, went into commission on the 31st of January, and left the navy-yard for Fort Mifflin, where she took on her powder, preparatory to sailing for the Mediterranean, there to cruise for the protection of American shipping.
Governor Curtin, Hon. Simon Cameron, and Senator Cowan arrived on the night of Friday, January 31st, and took quarters at the Continental Hotel. On the following evening Governor Curtin was present by invitation at the Commercial rooms to meet a number of merchants and leading business men, who had assembled there to receive him. There were no formal ceremonies, but the Governor was introduced to those persons with whom he was not previously acquainted, and, in response to a toast proposed by the president, William B. Hart, made a brief speech, chiefly in reference to the existing Rebellion and the means which Pennsylvania had adopted to aid in its suppression. Addresses were also delivered by Charles Gibbons, Thomas Smith, Morton McMichael, Charles Gilpin, William J. Wainwright, Henry D. Moore, Craig Biddle, William S. Smith, Thomas Webster, William Devine, Dr. H.G. Smith, Col. Chambers, and others. All the speakers bore the strongest testimony to the zeal, diligence, ability, and success with which the Governor had discharged his duties.
On the 3d of February, United States Marshal Millward received orders from the Secretary of State for the removal of the crews of the privateers "Petrel" and "Jeff Davis" from Moyamensing prison to Fort Lafayette, where they were to be treated as prisoners of war. George M. Wharton, counsel for the prisoners, sued out a writ of habeas corpus, and they were taken before Judge Cadwalader, who asked whether any of them objected to the transfer. All of them answered that they did not object, and nothing further was done under the writ of habeas corpus. On the 5th they were taken to Fort Lafayette. There were thirty-eight in all, three less than were captured. One of them, a young foreigner named Francis Alba, died during his imprisonment, another, William Sharkey, was in the hospital, and a third, Eben Lane, had been released.
On the 5th of February about two hundred and fifty sick soldiers arrived from the South, and were taken to the government hospital at Broad and Cherry Streets, previously the depot of the Reading Railroad Company. The hospital was capable of accommodating five hundred patients.
The lager-beer brewery of John Lips, in the rear of Seventeenth and Buttonwood Streets, was damaged by fire on the 5th of February to the extent of seventy thousand dollars.
The United States steamer "Suwanee," one of the transports of the Burnside expedition, arrived from Fortress Monroe on the 8th of February, bringing the bodies of Col. Joseph W. Allen and Surgeon F.S. Weller, of the Ninth New Jersey Regiment, who were drowned in the storm off Hatteras. The vessel was badly damaged in the storm.
J. Murray Rush, son of Richard Rush, and a prominent member of the bar, died on the 7th of February. Before the passage of the law providing for the election of district attorneys Mr. Rush held the position of assistant under Attorney-General Kane, and discharged its duties with marked ability. He was in his forty-ninth year.
The fitting up of the different military hospitals was completed early in February. The surgeons and their staffs were: General Hospital, Broad Street, Surgeon in Charge, Dr. John Neill; Assistant Surgeons, Drs. Yarrow, Woodhouse, Harrison Allen, and H.M. Bellows; Medical Cadets, George W. Shields, E.R. Corson, J.W. Corson, James Tyson, and W.R.D. Blackwood; Hospital Stewards, John Patterson and William H. Evans. General Hospital, Fifth Street, Surgeon in Charge, Dr. Meredith Clymer; Assistant Surgeons, Dr. R.J. Dunglison, Dr. William M. Breed; Medical Cadets, J.A. McArthur, C.M. King; Hospital Stewards, Lea Nichols and Frederick Brown. General Hospital, Christian Street, Surgeon in Charge, Dr. John J. Reese; Medical Cadets, R. Kelly, Edward Brooks; Hospital Steward, Benjamin Hallowell. The medical cadets were students of medicine, who were provided with quarters and rations, and were required to assist in dressing wounds, etc.
On the 8th of February a delegation from the City Councils visited Washington, and, accompanied by Gen. Pleasonton and Hon. William D. Kelley, waited upon Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, in relation to the comparatively defenseless condition of Delaware Bay and River. The Secretary stated that the subject had already received the attention of the War Department, and urged the delegation to address themselves to the task of arousing the capitalists of their city and State to the importance of upholding the credit of the government, with the assurance that every dollar placed at the disposal of the War Department would be invested in arms and ammunition for the defense of the Delaware and the Union.
The company organized by the veterans of the war of 1812 was known as the Pennsylvania Veterans. The first meeting of the company was held on the 11th of February, at the armory of the Philadelphia Grays. Col. John S. Warner presided, and Charles Lombard acted as secretary. A committee was appointed to draft by-laws for the regulation of the company. There were then seventy-six names on the roll.
A sword to be presented to Maj.-Gen. N.P. Banks was manufactured by Lambert & Mast. The scabbard, of silver, heavily plated with gold, bore the inscription, "Presented to Major-General Banks by Col. J.K, Murphy, Major M. Scott, Captain L.C. Kinsler, of the 29th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers." The hilt was of solid silver, and bore the initials "N.P.B."
Early on the morning of February 17th news was received of the surrender of Fort Donelson. Extras were issued, and great excitement prevailed throughout the city. In the Court of Quarter Sessions Judge Allison had the news read by Mr. Dare, the court crier, remarking that he felt justified in interrupting the regular proceedings, as every loyal man would be glad to know that the Union arms were victorious. The announcement was greeted with cheers by those present. In the District Court also Judge Hare directed that the news be announced, and a similar scene of enthusiasm followed. On the 19th salutes in honor of the victory were fired at the navy-yard and at Broad and Spring Garden Streets.
The Bridesburg arsenal was damaged by fire to the extent of about five thousand dollars on the 18th of February.
The One Hundred and Twelfth Pennsylvania Regiment, Col. Charles Angeroth, was filled up early in February, and was awaiting marching orders at its camp, near Camden, N.J.
* In the limited space at our command it is impossible to treat that portion of the history of the city of Philadelphia between the election of President Lincoln, on Nov. 6, 1860, and 1866, except in the briefest possible manner. During the period of the great civil war, almost every day bristled with prominent local events, and every week gave birth to numberless incidents of local or general interest. The magnitude of the subject and the multiplicity of the details required in a connected narrative of one of the most interesting and stirring epochs in the history of the city demand a far more extended and elaborate treatment than can be given within our present limits, and we have therefore been forced, reluctantly, to content ourselves with simply a chronological presentation of the most prominent events in Philadelphia history from Nov. 6, 1860, to January, 1866.
** In printing this correspondence the Press remarked that "should hostilities grow out of our present unhappy divisions the counsels of Gen. Patterson will be sought by men of all parties," on account of "his large experience in military matters, his undoubted patriotism, his services in the Mexican war, and his devotion to his own State."
*** This fine hotel was vacant at the time when the attack was made on Fort Sumter, and it was very convenient for the use to which it was put at this period.
**** Col. John W. Forney, in his "Recollections of Public Men," thus graphical1y describes a scene that took place in the United States Senate between Col. Baker and Hon. John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky:
"Perhaps the most dramatic scene that ever took place in the Senate-chamberold or new was that between Breckinridge and Col. E.D. Baker, of Oregon, on the 1st of August, 1861, five days before the adjournment sine die, inthe darkest period of the war, when the Rebellion was most defiant and hopeful. . . . Breckinridge rose-to make his last formal indictment against the government. Never shall I forget the scene. Baker was a senator and a soldier. He alternated between his seat in the Capitol and his tent in the field. He came in at the eastern door (while Breckinridge was speaking), in his blue coat and fatigue cap, riding-whip in hand. He paused and listened to the polished treason' as he afterward called it of the Senator from Kentucky, and, when he sat down, he replied with a fervor never to be forgotten."
Source: Scharf, Thomas J., & Thompson Westcott.; History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884.; Volume One: pp. 736-833.
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