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PA Civil War > County > York History

PA Civil War
Civil War History in York County, PA



extracted from the book History of York County, John Gibson, 1886


The news of the firing upon Fort Sumter, which occurred on the 12th of April, 1861, followed by the proclamation of President Lincoln on the 15th, calling for 75.000 troops, aroused the patriotism of our people. Gov. Curtin made a requisition upon the organized companies of Pennsylvania, and the citizen soldiers of York, consisting of the Worth Infantry, Captain Thomas A. Ziegle, and the York (Penn.) Rifles, Capt. George Hay, responded unanimously to the call, and obeyed with alacrity the order of the governor.

On the evening of Thursday, the 18th, in pursuance of a general call, the people of York assembled in great numbers in the court house, for the purpose of expressing their sense of the condition of the national government, and to offer aid to those called into the service. John Evans, Esq., was called to the chair, and other prominent citizens were made officers of the meeting. Patriotic resolutions were adopted, and measures taken to provide means for the support of the families of volunteers. The borough authorities appropriated $1,000 for this purpose, the commissioners were recommended to make an appropriation of $5,000, and committees were appointed to collect money by voluntary subscription from our citizens, and over $2,000 were contributed. The union feeling in York was intensely strong. Flags were suspended from the principal buildings, places of business and private residences, and poles were erected from which the stars and stripes floated proudly to the breeze. The ancient borough of York was not behind any of her neighbors in patriotism and zeal.

Events thickened and aroused intense feeling. The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment while passing through Baltimore, on the 19th, was attacked by a mob, and the passage of some of the cars obstructed. The soldiers who were obliged to form for the purpose of marching through the city, being assaulted with increased violence, fired upon the crowd. Two of the Massachusetts soldiers were killed and seven persons in the crowd, some rioters and some who were looking on. On that night a portion of the track of the Northern Central Railway was torn up between Cockeysville and Baltimore, and a number of the bridges on the road were set on fire and burned down for the purpose of impeding the passage of troops from the North.

The military companies from this place received orders on Saturday evening, the 20th, to hold themselves in readiness to march, and at 11 o'clock at night they left in a special train, going toward Baltimore, and were stationed in squads at the several bridges along the route of the road, and some at Cockeysville. Ten or twelve trains with troops passed through York on Sunday, from early in the morning until late at night, proceeding as far as Ashland and Cockeysville, concentrating some 3,000 men at those points. But on Monday these several regiments returned to York, and encamped on the fair grounds.

At the meeting of the court on Monday, the 22nd, the president judge, Hon. Robert J. Fisher, in charging the grand jury, referred to the distracted state of the country, and urged upon them the necessity of providing for the comfort and support of those who had so promptly obeyed their country's call. He stated that the citizens of York had subscribed several thousand dollars, and that the borough authorities had appropriated $1,000, and recommended the grand jury to request the commissioners to make a liberal appropriation for the same purpose out of the county funds, and said that he had no doubt the appropriation would be legalized by the Legislature. Several members of the bar also addressed the grand jury. The scene was a very impressive one. The grand jury the next day recommended that the commissioners appropriate $10,000, which was promptly done. Hanover and Wrightsville made liberal appropriations, making about $15,000 in all. The Legislature subsequently ratified these proceedings.

The troops which had passed through York to Cockeysville on Saturday and Sunday, were the First, Second and Third Regiments of Pennsylvania Volunteers, for the three months' service, composed of organized companies from nearly all the cities and principal towns in the State, the military companies of Easton, Allentown, Reading, Harrisburg, Lancaster, Chambersburg, Gettysburg, Columbia, Bloomfield, West Chester, Bellefonte, Hollidaysburg, Altoona, Johnstown, East Liberty, and other places - some unattached - together with our own military companies who were as early as any of them in the field. They came from comfortable homes and were unaccustomed to exposure and hardship. The commissary arrangements were not sufficient for so large a body of men suddenly thrown together, and they depended to some extent on voluntary supplies from our own people.

The hospitality of the citizens of York, on this occasion, extended to these new recruits, has frequently been mentioned by them in complimentary terms. The encampment here was for the purpose of instruction, and was called Camp Scott, in honor of the veteran commander-in-chief of the United States Army. The town assumed a warlike appearance. Other troops came on the 26th of April, the Twelfth and Thirteenth Regiments from Pittsburgh arrived, and by the 7th of May there were 5,500 men in camp here. In addition to these was Capt. Campbell's battery of twelve pieces of artillery. The Second Regiment, Col. Stumbaugh, of Chambersburg, had been organized on the 21st of April. The York Rifles, George Hay, captain, John W. Schall, first lieutenant, and Jacob Emmitt, Jr., second lieutenant, were attached to it here as company K.

The material of which the Sixteenth Regiment was formed, was also encamped on the fair grounds. Five companies were from Schuylkill county, one from Mechanicsburg, Capt. Dorsheimer's, the first company in the State that enlisted for three years, and four companies from York County. These were Company A (Worth Infantry), captain, John Hays; first lieutenant, Solomon Myers; second lieutenant, John M. Deitch. Company F (Marion Rifles of Hanover), captain, Horatio Gates Myers; first lieutenant, Joseph Renaut; second lieutenant, Jacob W. Bender. Company G (Hanover Infantry), captain, Cyrus Diller; first lieutenant, Henry Morningstar; second lieutenant, Joseph S. Jenkins. Company H (York Voltiguers), captain, Theodore D. Cochran; first lieutenant, Michael Gallagher; second lieutenant, Andrew D. Yocum. The regiment was organized at Camp Curtin on the 3d of May, by the selection of Thomas A. Ziegle as colonel. A.H. Glatz was made quartermaster, and Charles Garretson, assistant quartermaster.

The regiments here were all ordered to Chambersburg and left about the 1st of June, with every demonstration of encouragement, amid cheers and waving of handkerchiefs - the Rifles leaving with their regiment; but the Sixteenth remained for a few days. This regiment had already acquired great proficiency of drill under the care of its accomplished commander. On Saturday, the 8th of June, it marched into town to take its departure for the seat of war. In the morning a flag was presented to the regiment by the ladies of York. A perfect storm of flowers fell upon the soldiers as they marched through the streets, every one had a bouquet in his musket.

The Sixteenth was in the brigade of Col. Miles, U.S.A., First Division, and the Second regiment was in a brigade of the Second Division of the army of Gen. Patterson in the campaign of the valley of the Shenandoah. They moved from Chambersburg to Hagerstown and Williamsport. At the latter place Albertus Welsh died on the 27th of June, the first soldier from York who died in the war. He was a member of the Worth Infantry, and as already mentioned was one of the nine veterans from here in the war with Mexico. The Potomac was crossed on the 2nd of July by fording it, and an advance made to Martinsburg, arriving about the middle of July at Bunker Hill, driving in Johnston's advance guard. The regiment then made a forced march toward Harper's Ferry, the enemy's pickets retreating before them, and encamped at Charlestown, on the 17th of June. They were constantly threatened with attack, but no action took place. When their term of service expired the Second and Sixteenth Regiments returned to Harrisburg and were mustered out. The Worth Infantry and York Rifles arrived home on the 27th of July, where they were welcomed by the ringing of bells, firing of cannon, speeches and a banquet. The Voltigeurs arrived home on the 2nd of August, their commander, T.D. Cochran, was subsequently appointed a captain in the regular army. Capt. H.G. Myers, of the Marion Rifles, had been left ill at Hagerstown, where he died on the 8th of August. Thomas Brannon, a member of his company, died at the same place, on the 17th of July.

Thus ended the campaign of the three months' men. Though our soldiers were not engaged in battle, and we were glad to see them home safe and sound, events showed that they might have been. The demonstrations of Johnston in the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry were only feints, as was proved by his opportune arrival on the battle field of Bull Run, on Sunday, the 21st of July. Instead of the army of Gen. Patterson engaging him and preventing him from reinforcing Beauregard, he was permitted to retire with all the appearance of a retreat. The great embarrassment under which Gen. Patterson labored, and perhaps an altogether sufficient excuse for him, is found in the fact of the expiration of the term of enlistment of so many of his men just at the time of that battle, which after all, some have considered a Providential reverse.

There had already been a call on the part of the Government for men to serve for three years unless sooner discharged. The Thirtieth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers otherwise known as the First Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, organized on June 9, 1861, at Camp Wayne, Chester County, was represented by Company D, recruited in Lancaster and York Counties. The Forty-first regiment, the Twelfth Reserves, was first raised for the three months' service. Samuel N. Bailey, of York County, was made lieutenant-colonel. Company G., Capt. Charles W. Diven, afterward major, was recruited in York County. To enumerate the battles of .this renowned corps would be to relate the greater part of the history of the war. It is sufficient to say that York County had men in the Pennsylvania Reserves.

The Forty-third Regiment, known as the First Pennsylvania Artillery, was formed under the call for volunteers of April 13, 1861. One company was recruited in York by Alfred E. Lewis; who at the organization of the regiment was made senior major. The colonel was Charles T. Campbell, who, it will be remembered, was here with a battery during the encampment of troops on the fair grounds. He had enlisted twenty or more men here who were attached to battery A, commanded by Capt. Easton, which performed gallant service at Drainesville, and Gaines' Mill, where Capt. Easton was killed. The other company recruited here became Battery E, Capt. Thomas G. Orwig, and served in the Peninsular Campaign, under McClellan, and in the army of the James, rendering valuable service at Drury's Bluff and Fort Harrison, and at the siege of Petersburg and Richmond. It was the first battery that entered the capital, reaching there before the enemy' s flag was pulled down, and hastening the retreat of his rear guard, who had intended to fire the city.

Two companies of infantry for three years' service were recruited in York County early in 1861 - one in York by H. Clay McIntyre, and the other in Hanover by Cyrus Diller, immediately after his return from the three months' service. These companies were attached to the Seventy-sixth Regiment, which was raised under a special order of the secretary of war, and was known as the Keystone Zouaves, John M. Power, of Cambria County, colonel. Charles Garettson, of York, was made quartermaster, who, while serving with it, was appointed a captain in the regular army. The captains of Company D were successively Cyrus Diller (afterward major), William S. Diller and Charles L. Bittenger; of Company I, H. Clay McIntyre, Jacob J. Young, Frank J. Magee and Harrison Stair.

On the 18th of November, 1861, the regiment received its colors from the hands of Gov. Curtin, and proceeded to Fortress Monroe, sailed from there to Hilton Head; assisted in taking Fort Pulaski at the mouth of the Savannah River; participated in the attack on Charleston under Gen. Wright, and engaged the enemy with heavy loss in an expedition to sever communication between Charleston and Savannah. On the 6th of July, 1863, it moved to Morris Island, and on the 10th it took part in the memorable assault on Fort Wagner, which it charged in gallant style. They received the order to charge as the flash of the artillery fire was seen, knelt and permitted the discharge of' the guns to pass over them, then started forward with a yell. The ranks were thinned at every discharge. The moat was reached and crossed, and many fell on the parapet beyond; 130 men and five officers were left behind. A second assault took place on the 18th of July, with a similar result. Frank J. Magee acted as aid to Gen. Strong in the engagement. Company I went in with thirty-six men and but twelve escaped. Twelve regiments were afterward ordered to take the fort by storm, but were repulsed with great loss. Fort Wagner was a heavy sand fort, bomb proof, covering several acres. It was ultimately demolished after a fierce cannonading of fifty days' duration, when it was discovered that it had been abandoned by the enemy.

In May, 1864, the Tenth Corps, to which the Seventy-sixth was attached, was ordered to Virginia. The regiment took part in the battle at Drury's Bluff, where Capt. J.J. Young, of Company I, was killed, also in the sanguinary engagements at Cold Harbor, Deep Bottom, and numerous other localities on lines before Petersburg and Richmond. Capt. Magee served as aid-de-camp on staff of Gen. Terry, commanding corps; also was for a time with Gen. Ames. The Seventy-sixth, under command of Gen. Pennypacker, assisted in the capture of Fort Fisher, in January, 1865. It was disbanded at Harrisburg, July 23, 1865, after one of the longest terms of service in the war.

After the departure of the regiments quartered here, a company was organized by Capt. James A. Stahle, called the Ellsworth Zouaves, after the brave but ill-fated officer of that name. This company became Company A, of the Eighty-seventh Regiment. Capt. George Hay immediately after the return of the Rifles on the 19th of August, 1861, received a commission as colonel. The project originally was the raising of a regiment for the purpose of guarding the Northern Central Railway, in relief of other regiments recruited for the war. By the 12th of September there were five companies mustered in. John W. Schall was made lieutenant-colonel, and Charles H. Buehler, major. Eight of the companies were from York County and two from Adams. The officers commanding this regiment successively were colonels, George Hay, John W. Schall and James Tearney; lieutenant-colonel, James A. Stahle; major, Noah G. Ruhl; adjutant, Jacob Emmitt, Jr. Company A, captains, John Fahs, James Tearney, George J. Chalfant. Company B, captains, Jacob Detweiler, Lewis Maish, Zeph. E. Hersh. Company C, Andrew J. Fulton, Murray S. Cross, Findlay S. Thomas. Company D, James H. Blasser, Edgar M. Ruhl. Company E, Solomon Myers, Charles J. Fox. Company F, William J. Martin, James Adair. Company G, V.C. S. Eckert, H. Morningstar. Company I, Thaddeus S. Pfeiffer, William H. Lanius. Company H, Ross L. Harman, Wells A. Farrah. Company K, John Albright.

The first duty assigned them was the guarding of the railroad, relieving the Twentieth Indiana. On the 28th of May, 1862, the regiment was moved to Baltimore, and thence to West Virginia, and was kept actively employed and moving from point to point, under great fatigue and exposure, until it went into winter quarters with Gen. Milroy's Division at Winchester, about the 1st of January, 1863. Here they performed picket duty during the winter under very severe exposure.

In May, 1863, by the resignation of Col. Hay, John W. Schall became Colonel, James A. Stable, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Noah G. Ruhl, Major. Maj. Buehler was made Colonel of the One Hundred and Sixty-sixth. If the army of Gen. Patterson in 1861 ought to have engaged the enemy, it may be said that the command of Gen. Milroy, in 1863, ought not to have hazarded an engagement. He was over sanguine of holding his position; and by the consent of Gen. Schenck, disobeyed an order to retreat. The advance of Gen. Lee's forces for the invasion of the North, flushed with success, could not be checked by his comparatively small force.

June 12, 1863, the first of a series of battles was fought by the Eighty-seventh, at Middletown, ten miles distant from Winchester, with the advance guard of Ewell's army, and on the 13th and 14th they behaved with great gallantry in the battle of Winchester. On the 14th a brilliant charge was made by it at Carter's woods, in which Col. Schall had a horse shot under him. Capt. Farrah and lieutenant Slothower, of Company H, were killed. The regiment joined the Army of the Potomac in July, 1863, and was attached to the Third Corps, Gen. French, and was in the battles of Manassas Gap, Bealton Station, Kelley's Ford, Brandy Station, Locust Grove, and Mine Run.

Afterward assigned to the Sixth Corps,, Gen. Hancock, it was in the battles of the Wilderness, and at Cold Harbor where Col. Schall was wounded and Capt. Pfeiffer was killed, and the regiment sustained a loss in killed and wounded of nearly a third of its strength.

On the 6th of July, the battle of Monocacy was fought against superior numbers, the loss of the regiment being greater than in any other battle. Among those who lost their lives at this battle were Adjt. Martin and Lieuts. Haak, Dietrich, Spangler and Waltemeyer. In September the regiment was with the army of Sheridan at the battle of Opequon, where the enemy were defeated, and on the 22nd at Fisher's Hill, where he was again routed. The next day the term of service expired, and the remnant of the regiment returned home, arriving at York on the 27th of September, 1864, where a reception was awaiting them- their arrival announced by the ringing of bells. The old flag which they bore through all their battles was carried in the procession torn in shreds. Few regiments saw more active service and work or suffered more.

The veterans who had re-enlisted, and the new recruits who remained at the seat of war, were consolidated into a battalion of five companies, under command of Capt. Edgar M. Ruhl, who was killed while gallantly leading them in the battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. The regiment being recruited to its full strength, Capt. Tearney was commissioned colonel, and it participated in the charge upon the works before Petersburg, where Lieuts. Keasey and Nichol were killed. It was mustered out on the 29th of June, 1865.

After his return from the three months' service, Col. Thomas A. Ziegle received authority to recruit a regiment. One of the most experienced and accomplished volunteer officers in the service, he assisted in the organization of troops at Harrisburg, and March 5, 1862, was given the command of the One Hundred and Seventh. Company A, Capt. Jacob Dorsheimer, had volunteers from York County - Oliver P. Stair, first lieutenant, George C. Stair, second lieutenant. On Sunday, the 9th of March, the regiment passed through York, for the seat of war, moved to Washington, and on the 2nd of April crossed the Potomac, and was assigned to Duryea's brigade, Ord's division, of McDowell' s corps. After the defeat of Fremont and Banks by Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, the regiment reached Front Royal by forced march on the 1st of June, where Jackson had retreated. The regiment encamped at different places, and while near Warrenton, on the morning of the 16th of July, Col. Ziegle died. The whole regiment were devotedly attached to him, and he was regarded as one of the most efficient officers in the brigade. He had been identified with the military of York for so many years, that his career was regarded with expectations of unusual success. He has already been mentioned as one of the volunteers in the Mexican war from York, where he had displayed remarkable coolness and bravery, and became captain of his company. Immediately after that war he raised the military company known as the Worth Infantry, whose discipline and drill were not excelled by any corps in the Union. The Worth Infantry was the equal in their peculiar drill of the gallant Ellsworth's company of' Zouaves. His readiness and that of his company on the breaking out of the war for the Union, their services, the organization of the Sixteenth Regiment and its service have already been mentioned. His remains were brought home and were interred with impressive obsequies in Prospect Hill Cemetery, on July 20, 1862.

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment became part of the army under Gen. Pope, and was first under fire at Cedar Mountain on the 9th of August, 1862, and was in the second battle of Bull Run, and at Chantilly, South Mountain and Antietam. In October, 1862, it took position in Gen. Franklin's grand division, and was at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. It was in the First Corps, Gen. Reynolds, at Gettysburg, engaged the first day on Seminary Ridge, and on the third to the right of Cemetery Hill. In February, 1864, nearly the entire regiment re-enlisted, and after the veteran furlough, was with Grant in his movement across the James, heavily engaged, and before Petersburg. At Weldon' Station lieutenant George C. Stair was captured, and with other officers made his escape through the enemy's lines. Oliver P. Stair was promoted to captain and made brevet major. James Crimmons was wounded at Antietam, taken prisoner at Gettysburg and Weldon Station, and was made first lieutenant in July, 1865. The regiment was mustered out on the 13th of July, 1865.

In the summer of 1862 a company was raised in York by Col. Levi Maish, and about the same time companies by Capts. Hamilton Glessner and Lewis Small, and a company in Hanover by Capt. Joseph S. Jenkins, which were mustered into the service at Harrisburg about the middle of August. These, with five companies from Cumberland County, and some recruits from other counties, were formed into the One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment, Henry J. Zinn. of Cumberland, colonel; and Levi Maish, of York, lieutenant-colonel; and John Lee, of Cumberland, major. Company B, Capt. Glessner; lieutenants, William H. Tomes, Henry Reisinger; Company C, Capt. Jenkins; lieutenants, Benjamin F. Myers, William Bossier; Company I, Capt. Small; lieutenants, D. Wilson Grove, Franklin G. Torbet, Jere Oliver; Company K, Capts. Maish, David Z. Seipe; lieutenants, James Lece. John J. Frick. The regiment proceeded at once to Washington, and was moved across the Potomac. After the retreat of Pope it was assigned in September to French's division of Sumner's corps, and on the 16th, but one month after its formation, was in front of the enemy at Antietam, in the center.

The One Hundred and Thirtieth were posted on the 17th upon the crest of a hill, with a field of corn in front, and the enemy lay at the further edge behind a stone wall. Company K was 100 yards from where the enemy lay in the rifle pits. The regiment held this exposed position for hours. "The shot and shell flew like heavy hail, and the men became deaf from the roar of musketry and cannon." Gen. French said: "The conduct of the new regiments must take a prominent place in the history of this great battle. There never was such material in any army." The officers from York County wounded, were Col. Maish, Capt. afterward Maj. Jenkins, and Lieuts. Seipe and Tomes. Maj. Jenkins afterward was attached to the One Hundred and Eighty-fourth regiment, and was killed in November, 1864, in front of Petersburg.

At daylight on the 11th of December, the regiment moved to within sight of the spires of Fredericksburg, at night assisted in laying a pontoon bridge opposite the upper end of the city, and on the following morning crossed with the division and bivouacked in the streets of the city, part of which was still burning, and at night occupied the ruins of a large brick building on Caroline Street. The great battle began on the morning of the 13th by the firing of the artillery on both sides, and when the infantry was put in motion, the division of Gen. French was in advance, which was exposed to a terrific cross fire of shot and shell, but pressed on with broken and thinned ranks until it was compelled to fall back. Among the killed were Col. Zinn, commanding the regiment, and lieutenant Torbet, of this county.

Levi Maish was promoted to colonel on the 3d of February, 1863. When the command of the army devolved upon Gen. Hooker, the regiment was moved to Chancellorsville, and it was engaged in the furious battle of the 3d of May, 1863, when Col. Maish was again wounded.

On the 12th of May the regiment was relieved from further duty. The special order of Maj. -Gen. French, relieving the One Hundred and Thirtieth and One Hundred and Thirty-second, said: "The General commanding the division takes pleasure in promulgating, in orders, their gallantry, soldier-like bearing and efficiency, during their entire term of service." And after referring to the great battles in which they had been engaged, said: "Soldiers, you return to your native State which has received lustre from your achievements, and by your devotion to your country's cause. This army, and the division to which you are attached, although they lose you, will always retain and cherish the credit which your military bearing on all occasions reflected on them." On the announcement of their return a town meeting was held for their reception, and on Saturday, the 23d of May, 1863, they received a handsome and hearty welcome. The bells were rung, business suspended, a procession formed under a military and civic escort to the United States Hospital, where a collation was served by the Ladies' Aid Society, and speeches of welcome were made and responded to by the Colonel in praise of the bravery of his men in their great battles.

In all great wars, as was remarked in noting the events of the Revolution, the first volunteers are not sufficient to the conduct of a prolonged war, and especially in the recent war, carried on upon such an immense scale, a draft was necessary. On two occasions there was a draft in York, on October 16, 1862, and in August, 1863. There were other calls, and partial drafts, but, generally, on the announcement of the quota for any district it was filled either by volunteers or by means of subscriptions for the purpose. Many took their chances of the draft and went in person when drawn. It is the experience of army officers that men raised by this means are as steady and efficient as any other troops.

The One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Regiment was formed, in large part, by men raised under the draft of 1862. It was organized on the 29th of November in that year, on the fair grounds, named Camp Franklin, after Maj.-Gen. William B. Franklin, with the following field officers: Andrew J. Fulton, late captain of Company C. of the Eighty-seventh, colonel; George W. Reisinger, lieutenant-colonel, and Joseph A. Renaut, Major. The troops comprising this regiment were exclusively from York County, and proved themselves to be good soldiers. On the 8th of November, the regiment proceeded to Washington, and from thence to Newport, and under Gen. Peck, to Suffolk, which place was besieged by Gen. Longstreet for more than three weeks, who failed to reduce it. While there, companies of the One Hundred and Sixty-sixth were engaged in heavy skirmishes with the enemy, and sustained considerable loss in killed, wounded and prisoners. Companies D and I had a severe conflict on the 14th of May, near Carnsville. After further service in the destruction of railroads leading North, during which they were exposed to the fire of the enemy, especially at Hanover Junction, while engaged in destroying the Richmond & Fredericksburg Railroad. At the expiration of their term of service, on July 28, 1863, they were mustered out. The regiment left with over 800 men and about 650 returned - 9 were killed, about 25 died, and others were left sick at Fortress Monroe.

In the meantime, events at home gave our people work to do; and in all cases when called upon to furnish provisions or give aid to the sick and wounded, they were ready with abundance, and with sanitary help. The Second Regiment of the Ira Harris cavalry (Sixth New York) took up winter quarters here about Christmas, 1861. In the course of the winter barracks were erected on the commons for their accommodation. This regiment had occasion to express their appreciations of the hospitable attention they received from our citizens. Gen. Havelock, a distinguished British officer, a volunteer on the staff of Gen. McClellan, as Inspector-General of Cavalry, visited York, in March 1862, for the purpose of superintending the transportation of the New York regiment which soon after left us. The barracks erected for them were converted into a military hospital, in the course of the summer, in which many hundreds of soldiers were placed. The ladies of the borough formed a society for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers, Mrs. C. A. Morris, president which was perfect in organization and effectiveness, and the attention, sympathy and aid afforded by it have been gratefully remembered.

Great apprehensions were excited by the retreat of the army under Gen. Pope, in September, 1862, and still further increased by the crossing of the Potomac by the rebels in large force, and the occupation of the city of Frederick. In consequence of the reported advance of the enemy toward the Pennsylvania line, a meeting of the citizens of the borough was called, on September 8, 1862, and it was resolved to form companies in the respective wards, and voluntary organizations were thereupon immediately formed, in the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Wards, two in the Fourth, and an independent company being the seventh, called the Keystone Guards, and a cavalry company called the Videttes. The captains of these companies secured 700 stand of arms and necessary accoutrements. Places of business were closed at 6 o'clock, to give an opportunity for drilling and to acquire proficiency in case the companies were needed. They were all mustered into the service on September 12, 1862, and were not discharged until the 24th. The Keystone Guards were fully armed and equipped ready to march when the order to move was countermanded. The reception of the news of the battle of Antietam, and the retreat of Lee across the Potomac, quieted the country.

In June, 1863, our people were again thrown into a state of excitement from an apprehended rebel invasion. Two military departments were erected and Gen. Couch was given command of the eastern department, and orders issued for the formation of the army corps of the Susquehanna, but the enemy moved with more rapidity than was expected. Dr. Palmer, surgeon in charge of the United States Hospital, received orders to remove the patients and stores to a place of greater security, the rolling stock of the Northern Central Railway was removed northward, and citizens were warned to take care of their valuables, especially their horses. A large meeting was held on the 15th of June, and a Committee of Safety formed. Maj. Granville O. Haller, Seventh United States Infantry, who was in York at this time, was placed in command of military preparations here by order of Gen. Couch. Gen. William B. Franklin, U.S.A., was also present in York. These officers met in consultation with the Safety Committee. Large bounties were offered by the borough and county authorities. A company under Capt. Seip was organized and sent to Harrisburg, and a company of horsemen acted as scouts. But before any further organizations could be effected, the rapid movements of the enemy brought him to our doors. They came nearer and nearer, heralded by flying families, and horses and cattle, removed by the orders of Gen. Couch, to the east of the Susquehanna. On the 26th of June, Gettysburg was occupied by a large force. Late at night the Philadelphia City Troop arrived with jaded horses, and reported that they had been chased several miles this side of Gettysburg. Maj. Haller arrived at midnight, having narrowly made his escape from that place. The enemy were reported the next day, Saturday, at Abbottstown. The troops here, consisting of the Patapsco Guards, about 60 men, and 200 convalescents of the hospital and some citizens, the City Troop, a cavalry company from Gettysburg, in all about 350 men (companies of citizens were not ordered out) were at first moved westward, but it was deemed that such resistance as they might make would likely result in disaster to the town, and they were moved toward Wrightsville.

On the 28, June, 1863, the rebel army entered York. They marched into town about 10 o'clock, on Sunday morning, entering the west end of Market Street ; the church bells had commenced ringing and the citizens crowded the streets. Ladies on their way to church stopped on the porches and sidewalks. The whole population soon thronged the streets, and men, women and children looked with curious eyes, mingled with undefined apprehensions, upon the motley procession of cavalry, infantry and artillery marching up Market Street, the soldiers looking curiously from side to side, astonished not less at their observers than their observers were at. them. The people were in holiday or Sunday costume, the ladies in all their fashionable finery, and the men looking well dressed and comfortable, in strange contrast with the ragged and worn appearance of the invading army. These first troops that entered the town were Gen. Gordon's brigade of 2,500 men, who marched up Market Street and on toward Wrightsville. The Union flag was floating in the center square and was taken down and carried off by them.

Two regiments of infantry, with ten pieces of artillery, followed, and with them, Maj.- Gen. Early, commander of the division. This last brigade took possession of the hospital grounds, the commons. Gen. Early established his headquarters in the court house. York was the only place of any considerable size and wealth they had in their grasp. They saw the rich valley, and the evidences of prosperity all around us, and made their demands accordingly. Although the men were restrained from violence and citizens were treated with respect, the iron hand of an enemy was felt. A requisition was made for provisions and articles of clothing and $100,000 in money. Our prominent business men, by their efforts, partially filled the requisition, raising some $28,000. Threats were made of burning the railroad buildings and car shops, and prudence dictated compliance as far as possible.

Four brigades were in York and vicinity, commanded by Gens. Gordon, Hayes, Smith and Hoke. The brigade of Gen. Gordon marched to Wrightsville, reaching there about 6 o'clock, in the evening. The few Union troops there retreated across the bridge, after the exchange of a few shots with the enemy. The bridge was fired about midway, and soon the whole was enveloped in flames. The invading troops left hastily on the morning of Tuesday, the 30th of June, between 4 and 5 o'clock.

There were some incidents connected with the rebel invasion of the borough of York, which gave rise to much excitement and misrepresentation at the time and afterward, and as a part of the res gestae, as the lawyers say, cannot pass unnoticed. Sufficient time has elapsed since the war, to view the proceedings calmly. A visit was made to the camp of the enemy, on the evening preceding his entry into town, by the request of the Committee of Safety, in order to assure the alarmed citizens of the safety of persons and property, an assurance which accounts for the calm manner in which the presence and control of a hostile foe, was viewed by our people the next day; and the flag, in Centre Square, was left flying to show that the town was not surrendered. It was soon after replaced by another flag; presented by W. Latimer Small, Esq., to the borough.

The following is a copy of the requisition made upon the borough of York by Gen. Early, during his occupancy of the town, also a list of the articles and amount of money he received:


One hundred and sixty-five barrels of flour, or twenty-eight thousand pounds baked bread.

Thirty-five hundred pounds of sugar.
Sixteen hundred and fifty pounds of coffee.
Three hundred gallons molasses.
Twelve hundred pounds salt.
Thirty-two thousand pounds fresh beef, or twenty-one thousand pounds bacon or pork.
The above articles to be delivered at the Market House on Main Street, at 4 o'clock P.M.

William W. THORNTON,

Capt. & A.C.S.


Two thousand pairs shoes or boots.
One thousand pairs socks.
One thousand felt hats.
One hundred thousand dollars in money.

Major & Chief Q.M. Early's Division.
June 28, 1863.
Approved, and the authorities of the town of York will furnish the above articles and the money required, for which certificates will be given.

Major-General Commanding.

A meeting of prominent business men was called, and a committee appointed to fill the above requisition. After every effort was made with unexampled labor on their part, a sum of money and the following articles were furnished, with which Gen. Earley expressed satisfaction, viz.:

Twenty-two thousand pounds of beef, 3,500 pounds sugar, 1,200 pounds salt, 2,000 pairs boots and shoes, 1,000 hats, 1,000 pairs socks, 165 barrels flour, and 300 gallons molasses, 3,500 pounds sugar, 1,650 pounds coffee, and $28,610 in money.

The Confederate army evacuated York early on Tuesday morning, and our people were cut off with communication with the outside world and news from the army until Tuesday evening, July 2, when a scouting party of twenty of Kilpatrick's cavalry, from Hanover, came galloping into town. The feelings of our people were worked up into a fever of excitement, and the scouts were received with great joy. A collation was at once spread for them in the market house in Centre Square, and as the hungry men were about to partake of it, the sentinel on duty a short distance down Market Street gave the alarm, that a body of horsemen were approaching from the west. The officer in command, gave the order "to horse" and quicker than it can be written, every man vaulted into the saddle, and with drawn sabre and carbine in readiness, were in line, eager to make a dash down the street, upon the reported advance of the enemy. The officer poised his field glass, but instead of an enemy, discovered a peaceable farmer coming into Botts town, with a load of hay, drawn by six horses. The soldiers laughingly dismounted, and did full justice to the viands spread for them by the patriotic people of York. After ascertaining that the army under Earley had left this section of the country the cavalry left for Hanover, to join Kilpatrick and take a hand in the bloody fight at Gettysburg.

The Committee of Safety of the borough of York, organized in June, 1863, for the defense of the borough of York, for the information of the public, published the following statement:

On Monday evening, the 15th of June, 1863, at the call of the chief burgess, a large meeting was held in the court house, which resulted in the appointment of the following Safety Committee:

First Ward - Frederick Stallman, William H. Albright, Gates J. Weiser.

Second Ward - David E. Small, John Gibson, E.H. Weiser.

Third Ward - Thomas White, Jacob D. Schall, W. Latimer Small.

Fourth Ward - Col. D.A. Stillinger, Gen. George Hay, George A. Barnitz.

Fifth Ward - Fred. Baugher, Lewis Carl, Joseph Smyser.

The Safety Committee met at 9 o'clock on Tuesday morning, and issued a call in obedience to the governor's proclamation, for the formation of military companies to be sent to Harrisburg for the defense of the State.

A company of men for six months was organized in the borough, under Capt. Seip, and, sent to Harrisburg, who are now in the service of the United States.

They also used every effort with the commissioners of the county to secure to every volunteer a bounty of $25, in which they did not succeed. They, however, through a town meeting called by them, on the evening of the 17th of June, obtained from the town council of the borough of York a sum sufficient to pay the required bounty, which was accordingly done.

The committee further recommended the citizens of the borough and county to form a company of horsemen, to act as scouts. This latter company was immediately organized, and were very serviceable to the committee in furnishing them with information.

Despatches were, from time to time, received from Maj. G.O. Haller, Seventh United States Infantry, at Gettysburg, of the movements of the enemy. Maj. Haller had been appointed aid to Gen. Couch, and placed in charge of the defenses here, and he frequently consulted and advised with the committee as to the means to be used for the protection of the borough. The committee met twice a day, and all information received by them, by telegrams or otherwise, was immediately given to the public.

On the 23d of June, 1863, an order of Gen. Couch was published, by hand-bills, to the people of the county, "directing that all horses, except those for cavalry or scouting purposes, and all cattle, be sent north or east of Harrisburg," thus giving ample notice to all persons to place in security property most liable to capture by the enemy.

On the 24th of June, reliable information from Gettysburg was received through Maj. Haller that the enemy were on the South Mountain with a large force, consisting of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The committee, at that time, not apprehending anything more than cavalry raids in this vicinity, issued a call to the citizens of the borough to form companies of minute men for home defense. To effect this, places of business, at the request of the Safety Committee and of the chief Burgess, were closed at 6 o'clock P.M. The next day, Friday, June 26, the places of business were closed at 12 o'clock, noon, and those desirous of joining military organizations for the defense of the borough, were requested to meet at the court house, at 2 o'clock P.M. A large gathering of citizens responded to the call, and the company rolls were opened.

During the meeting, a dispatch from Maj. Haller was received, informing the committee that the enemy were moving upon Gettysburg with infantry, cavalry and artillery, and urging the citizens of York to organize and arm themselves, that perhaps York County could be saved. A meeting of citizens assembled at 7:30 o'clock in the evening, at which addresses were delivered and the rolls again opened. One company, numbering seventy men, under Capt. John Hays, was organized.

At a late hour on Friday night information was received of the occupation of Gettysburg and of the retreat of our forces from that town. Places of business were closed on Saturday during the entire day. Notice of the rebels being at Abbottstown was received about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. The forces here were ordered out by Maj. Halley, consisting of the convalescents of the United States Hospital, the hospital guard a few men of the Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, the Philadelphia City Troop, a volunteer company of cavalry from Gettysburg and vicinity, and some citizens of York, in all about 350 men. This force, about 6 o'clock, was ordered to fall back to Wrightsville, leaving the borough of York without a soldier to defend it.

At the request of the chief burgess, the Safety Committee was convened at half-past seven o'clock. The following committee immediately adopted the following resolution:

Resolved, That the American flag be raised in the Centre Square.

The chief burgess informed the committee that Mr. Arthur Farquhar, a citizen of the borough had reported to him an interview with Brig.- Gen. Gordon, of the rebel army, a few miles from town, and that he was authorized to inform the borough authorities that in case no resistance was made to the occupation of the town, private property and unarmed citizens should be respected; whereupon the committee adopted the following resolution:

Resolved, That finding our town defenseless, we request the Chief Burgess to surrender the town peacefully and to obtain for us the assurance that the persons of citizens and private property will be respected, the Chief Burgess to be accompanied by such of the committee as may think proper to join him.

The following named gentlemen were appointed a special committee to accompany the Chief Burgess: Gen. George Hay, President of the Committee of Safety; W. Latimer Small and Thomas White, Esq. These gentlemen with the Chief Burgess and Mr. Farquhar left town about eight o'clock Saturday evening, and returned about one o'clock the following morning. They reported an interview with Brig. Gen. Gordon in which they informed him that they had endeavored to raise all the force they could to resist his entering the town, but having failed to do so, all that they asked if he did enter, was that the persons and property of citizens should be safe, that the rebel General gave them every assurance of the protection they asked in case the town should be occupied by his forces, and further that there was nothing said by either party about a surrender of the town. At ten o'clock on Sunday morning, the 28th of June, the rebels in large force entered and occupied the town. The flag flying in Centre Square was ordered to be taken down by the enemy and was carried away by him.

The Committee of Safety having discharged the duties imposed upon them to the best of their judgment respectfully submit the above report of their action to their fellow citizens.

William H.. ALBRIGHT,


At Hanover, the first battle of the war in Pennsylvania, was fought on Tuesday, June 30, 1863, an artillery and cavalry fight which lasted the greater part of the day. The cannonading was distinctly heard in York. The third division of the cavalry corps, of the Army of the Potomac, under Gen. Kilpatrick, one of the brigades of which was commanded by Gen. Custer, reached Littlestown on. the 29th, and Hanover on the 30th, in pursuit of Gen. Stuart, who was known to be moving through Pennsylvania. The Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry was of the rear guard of Kilpatrick's column, and while halting in the streets of Hanover, was suddenly attacked by the head of Stuart's column. The Eighteenth was at first driven through the town, but rallying with the Fifth New York, drove the enemy back, when his artillery opened fire. The roar of guns brought Kilpatrick to the rescue. He formed his line of battle on the hills south of Hanover, and the enemy held the heights to the north, the Eighteenth Pennsylvania occupying th e town and barricading the streets. The fight, with artillery firing and skirmishing, continued until dark, when the enemy retired. A large body of them came as far as Dover, and about 230 prisoners were paroled there. Thirteen Union men were killed and fourteen wounded, four rebels killed and nine wounded, Stuart was prevented by this engagement from joining Lee until after the battle of Gettysburg, and his absence was greatly deplored by the Confederate leader.

Among the most renowned and effective branches of the service were the cavalry regiments. The Eleventh Cavalry (One Hundred and Eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers) was organized at the commencement of the war. It received recruits here who were attached to Company I, Capt. William I. Reisinger and Daniel H. Shriver, lieutenant. This regiment was employed in continuous and arduous cavalry service for four years, with the Army of the Potomac and with Sheridan. In one of its raids lieutenant Shriver was killed, at Flat Creek Bridge, on February 14, 1864.

During the months of June and July, 1863, the Twenty-first Cavalry, (One Hundred and Eighty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers) was recruited, under a call for cavalry for six months' service, during which it was on scouting duty in the Shenandoah Valley. Company A, Capt. Hugh W. McCall, Lieuts. S. Nelson Kilgore and Samuel N. Manifold, was raised principally in the lower end of York County. In January, 1864, it was reorganized for three years' service. This regiment was engaged at Cold Harbor, on the 1st, 2nd and 3d of June, and in the assault on Petersburg, on the 18th. Again, at Jerusalem Plank Road, Weldon Railroad, at Poplar Spring Church, where it was complimented for its gallantry by Gen. Griffin, and at Hatcher's Run. Afterward it was in other engagements, and, in the final assault upon the defences of Petersburg, had the honor of making the first charge in the campaign, near Dinwiddie Court House, and had other fighting up to the surrender near Appomattox Court House. It was mustered out on July 8, 1865.

Just previous to the invasion of Pennsylvania, in June, 1863, a company was formed in York, which was united with a body of troops, known as the First Battalion, and placed on guard and provost duty. In March, 1864, it became Company B, of the One Hundred and Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, then organized for three years' service: David Z. Seipe, captain, afterward major; Samuel I. Adams, first-lieutenant, afterward captain; Matthew H. McCall, first-lieutenant and quartermaster of the regiment; Jonathan J. Jessop, William W. Torbert, Samuel C. Ilgenfritz, second lieutenants. In May, 1864, the regiment was ordered to the front to join the Army of the Potomac and assigned to the Fifth corps, arriving in time to participate in the battle of Cold Harbor. It suffered severely at Petersburg, on the 18th of June; Maj. Merrick, commanding the regiment, and lieutenant Jessop, each lost a leg, while leading their men to the charge. For its gallant conduct the regiment received the commendation of Gen. Chamberlain, commanding the corps. It was again engaged at Weldon Railroad, on the 18th of August. In September, it was moved from the front and placed on duty at Philadelphia, where it acted as escort to the remains of President Lincoln on the occasion of the funeral obsequies in that city.

Beside the company of Capt. Seipe, just mentioned, companies were formed in York County, who were mustered in for the emergency service, from June to August, 1863, but the great victory of Gettysburg, relieved our people from all apprehended danger.

The First and Eleventh Corps of the Army of the Potomac, on Wednesday, July 1, 1863, came up with the enemy, in large force, under Gens. Hill and Longstreet, near Gettysburg, and a short and severe engagement ensued in and around that town. Gen. Reynolds was killed at the commencement of the fight, while riding at the head of his troops. On Thursday another engagement began, - the rest of the army, under Gen. Meade, having come up, and the army of the Confederates, under Gen. Lee. The firing was heard here distinctly, and in the evening, from six to eight o'clock, it was terrific. On Friday the battle continued, resulting in the defeat and retreat of Lee. This great battle furnished an opportunity to our people to forward supplies and assistance to the wounded and suffering soldiers, on and in the neighborhood of the field of battle. It scarce needed a public meeting, which was called for the purpose, to cause our citizens to bring in abundance of provisions to the market and court houses. In less than two hours and a half thirty wagons, loaded down with the necessaries of life, bread, cakes, hams and delicacies, accompanied by male and female nurses, were on their way to the battlefield. Provisions continued to arrive and were at once forwarded to the scene of action.

In the early part of 1864 sanitary fairs throughout the country were held, and the ladies of the Soldiers' Aid Society, of York, in February of that year, inaugurated a series of entertainments in connection with their fair, consisting of concerts, tableaux and other exhibitions, by which large amounts of money were raised for the sanitary fund. Quiet reigned at home, and our people were free from all apprehension of danger, until they were suddenly disturbed by another advance of the enemy across the Potomac.

After terrible battles and frightful slaughter, Gen. Grant, about July 1, 1864, sat down before Petersburg to commence the siege of the enemy's works, and the slow, but sure advance to Richmond. But while he was there with his great army, the country was startled by another invasion of Maryland, by Ewell's Army, and siege laid to Washington, the enemy's cannon shaking the very Capitol. After the battle of Monocacy, the Confederate cavalry overran all eastern Maryland. Harry Gilmore made his famous raid, destroying the railroads, and particularly cutting off communication between Philadelphia and Baltimore. A memorable incident of this raid was the capture and escape of Maj. Gen. Franklin. On the 11th day of July, when on the train from Baltimore to Philadelphia, he was taken prisoner, but while at Reisterstown, in charge of a guard, he made his escape. Feigning sleep, the guards fell asleep really, when he quietly walked off. After hiding two days in the woods. he met a farmer who befriended him, and with whom he took refuge until it was time to make his way further.

There was witnessed, in the month of July, 1864, again, the distressing sight of refugees fleeing through our streets in charge of horses and cattle. The proximity of the enemy occasioned great alarm. There was a call by the governor for 24,000 men to serve for one hundred days. Five companies were formed in York for home protection, and public meetings were called to provide bounties for volunteers. The stores were closed, and business generally suspended.

On the 30th day of July the awful news was received of the burning of the town of Chambersburg. Three hundred and fifty houses were burned and all the public buildings. A public meeting for the relief of the sufferers was called, and several thousand dollars were raised for that purpose in York. The enemy retiring relieved us from further apprehension.

Of the hundred days men, the One Hundred and Ninety-fourth Regiment had men from York County. It was put on duty in and near Baltimore, on the lines of the railroads, on provost duty, and as guard to prisoners.

Early in 1864 a draft was ordered for 500,000 men, unless forthcoming by volunteers, and for some districts a draft was made on the 6th of June. On the 18th of July there was a call for 500,000 volunteers. This call, after the already exhausting drafts, roused a class of citizens, who determined to volunteer themselves, and fill the quotas, organized companies, and became attached to regiments, which, although put into service late in the war, acquired the distinction of veterans.

The Two Hundredth Regiment was commanded by Col. Charles W. Diven, formerly major of the Twelfth Reserves. It was organized on September 3, 1864. The companies, formed in York, attached to this regiment, were, Company A, Adam Reisinger, John Wimer, captains; William F. Reisinger, Edward Smith, Jere Oliver, lieutenants. Company D, William H. Duhling, captain; Martin L. Duhling and William H. Drayer, lieutenants. Company H, Jacob Wiest, captain; James McComas and William H. Smyser, lieutenants. Company K, Hamilton A. Glessner, captain; George I. Spangler, Augustus C. Steig and Zachariah S. Shaw, lieutenants.

At the time of the formation of the companies just mentioned, a company was raised in York by Capt. Lewis Small; lieutenants, Richard C. Ivory and William L. Keagle. This company was attached, at Harrisburg, to the Two Hundred and Seventh Regiment as Company E.

Two other companies from York County were also then formed, one by Capt. Henry W. Spangler; lieutenants Thomas .J. Hendricks, William Douglas, and William B. Morrow; the other by Capt. John Klugh; lieutenants, George W. Heighes and Henry L. Arnold, and were attached to the Two Hundred and Ninth Regiment as Companies B. and I.

These three regiments, organized about the same time, were immediately ordered to the front, and placed in the Army of the James, and were employed in active duty until the 24th of November, when they were transferred to the Army of the Potomac, and placed in the division of Gen. Hartranft, Ninth corps. They performed fatigue duty and were thoroughly drilled during the winter, and were engaged in several raids at Bermuda Hundred, Jerusalem Plank Road and Hatcher's Run, and at the opening of the spring campaign they were engaged in one of the most brilliant achievements of the war. Fort Steadman was, by a surprise, captured by the enemy. Hartranft had six Pennsylvania regiments, including these three, and determined to lead his command at once to the assault- Col. Diven, commanding the First Brigade. About daylight, on Saturday morning, the 25th of March, after three several assaults, under very heavy fire, the fort was retaken. The Two Hundredth led the assault, supported by the Two Hundred and Ninth. The Two Hundredth received particular mention in Gen. Hartranft's report: "It was put to the severest test, and behaved with great firmness and steadiness." And he congratulated all the men and officers of his command "for their gallant and heroic conduct," that they had "won a name and reputation of which veterans ought to feel proud."

April 2, the division was again formed for assault in front of Fort Sedgewick, in the capture of which the men and officers behaved with great gallantry and coolness. Sergt. Michael Harman, of Company E, Two Hundred and Seventh, was killed in this assault. The color sergeant of the regiment, George J. Horning, fell pierced with seven balls, when Sergt. Charles J. Ilgenfritz sprang forward and raised the colors, and the men rushed over the works and the colors were planted on the fort. The regiments advanced to the city of Petersburg, which was by this time abandoned, and continued in pursuit of the enemy until the surrender of Lee, and in May they were mustered out.

A company was raised in York by Capt. Emanuel Herman, in the early part of 1865, Emanuel Butter, first lieutenant, and Charles W.P. Collins, second lieutenant. This company was attached, with seven other companies, to the One Hundred and Third Veteran Regiment, which had been reduced to eighty-one men. It was on duty in North Carolina, until June 25, 1865, when it was mustered out at Newbern.

Soldiers from York and York County, volunteered in other Pennsylvania regiments, besides those mentioned, and also in regiments of other States, and where, in some cases, they had become residents. Henry J. Test, who had been a member of the Worth Infantry, in the three months' service, volunteered in the Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers (Col. Hambright's regiment, of Lancaster County), became a lieutenant in Company B, and was killed at the battle of Perryville, Ky., on October 8, 1862. The Seventh Iowa Regiment was commanded by Col. Jacob Lauman, afterward brigadier-general, who was with Gen. Grant in the West, at Belmont, Pittsburgh Landing and Fort Donelson. At this last named place, Capt. Jonathan S. Slaymaker, of the Second Iowa, fell while leading his company in the. assault. Corp. David Flays, of the Thirteenth Indiana, a soldier of the Mexican war, distinguished himself in a desperate hand to hand encounter with the rebels in Western Virginia. Many others might be mentioned whose names cannot be recalled.

Thus from the ordinary life of the citizen, from the farm, the workshop. the counting room and the office, our men left their business and homes, at the call of their country, and formed a part of that great body of volunteers, which constituted, with the regular army as a nucleus, the military power of the nation, and furnished their full share toward the preservation of the American Union. The army officers are chiefly graduates of the military academy. These in many instances, during the war, retaining their rank in the line, became general officers of volunteers. The West Point graduates from York attained conspicuous positions in the service. William B. Franklin was major-general by brevet, and major-general of volunteers; Horatio Gates Gibson, major, Third Artillery, was colonel of Second Ohio Heavy Artillery and brevet brigadier general of volunteers. On the staff, Edmund Shriver was Inspector-General of the Army of the United States and brevet major-general; Michael P. Small, colonel, commissary department, and brevet brigadier-general. Of those appointed from civil life were Maj. Granville O. Haller, Seventh Infantry: Capt. Walter S. Franklin, Twelfth Infantry, brevet major and on the staff with the rank of lieutenant-colonel; Capt. Theodore D. Cochran, of the Thirteenth Infantry; Capt. Charles Garrettson, of the Seventeenth Infantry; lieutenant George W.H. Stouch, Third Infantry, and lieutenant Jacob L. Stouch, Twelfth Infantry.

The brilliant achievements of the navy reflected luster upon the national escutcheon, and to that branch of the service is due one half of the conquest of the Rebellion. Graduates of the naval academy, from this place, Commanders Clarke H. Wells, Samuel R. Franklin and William Gibson, participated in the great naval engagements of the war, and experienced on the iron clads, in blockade, bombardment, and battle, in Charleston Harbor and on the James and Mississippi and elsewhere, much perilous and arduous service; and volunteers from the borough and county of York, were to be found among the gallant crews and officers of Union vessels.

The city of Richmond was deserted on Sunday, April 2, 1865, by the confederate government and by the army that for a year had so fiercely defended it. The first Union troops who entered it found it abandoned and in flames. The fall of Richmond was celebrated in York, on the 8th of April, by a procession - business was suspended and at night there was an illumination. On the 9th of April, Gen. Lee surrendered the confederate army of Northern Virginia to Gen. Grant, and on the 26th of April Gen. Johnston surrendered the Confederate States Army in North Carolina, to Gen. Sherman. Peace was soon after proclaimed, and "the cruel war was over."

But while these concluding events of the greatest of civil wars were enacting, the startling intelligence of the assassination of President Lincoln plunged the nation into the deepest mourning. On the 21st of April, almost every resident of York repaired to the railroad, to pay the last sad tribute of respect to the memory of the lamented chief magistrate. The military and citizens in procession were placed in line, and the funeral corteges amid the tolling of bells and firing of minute guns, passed through lines of citizens who stood with uncovered heads. A floral tribute was laid upon his coffin by the ladies of York. It consisted of a beautiful wreath of rare flowers encircling the national shield. The field was made of blue violets, with myrtle representing the stars, the bars were made alternately of white and red verbena. Thus passed the last sad pageant of a most painful but eventful period in the history of our nation.



ON Tuesday morning, June 30, 1863, the sun rose bright and clear, and began to send forth his gentle rays over the quiet and interesting town of Hanover, but not a citizen then thought that day was to be the most eventful one in the entire history of the borough. The second northern invasion of Gen. Lee's army was anticipated, after the disastrous defeat of the Union Army at Chancellorsville, Va., in May, but the position of neither army was generally known to the citizens of southern Pennsylvania on the day of the engagement at Hanover. For several days before this event, trains of wagons and many people with valuable household articles and horses passed through town on their way beyond the Susquehanna River to a place of security from the invading foe. On Saturday, the 27th of June, Col. White, commanding about 250 Confederate cavalrymen, came into town from the west. In the Public Square they halted a few minutes; he made a brief speech to the citizens who had collected and inquired of them if there were any Union soldiers about the town. He seemed to be an excitable, impetuous sort of personage, of large build and auburn complexion. In his brief address, he claimed that his soldiers were gentlemen, and would be inoffensive to private citizens. His language, however, was more forcible than elegant. Visiting stores and obtaining articles of clothing, cutlery, etc., they went to Hanover Junction, and destroyed the bridges on the Northern Central Railway, and from thence went toward York, where they joined Early's army.

On the 28th of June, Maj. Gen. Kilpatrick left Frederick, Md., leading the advance of the Union Army; passing through Taneytown, and Littlestown, he entered Hanover about eight o'clock on the morning of the 30th, at the head of his army, consisting of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, First Virginia, Fifth New York, First Vermont, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Michigan, and other cavalry regiments, and two batteries of artillery. The entire division numbered about 5,000 men, brave soldiers, who had participated in many a hard-fought battle south of Mason and Dixon's line. Tired and weary of their long and tedious marching, their spirits were much enlivened by the enthusiastic welcome they received from the people of Hanover, who for several days were kept in anxious suspense, on account of having no telegraphic communication with the outside world. Regiment after regiment passed up through Frederick Street, and halted a few minutes in Center Square, where they were generously fed by patriotic citizens. Few of the soldiers dismounted, but partook of the proffered food as they sat on their horses. They were not retreating from a dangerous foe, but, on the contrary, searching for him, and were courageously led by a bold, impetuous and skillful commander, in whom every soldier had implicit confidence. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, the Confederate cavalry commander of Lee's army, with Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee, second in command, had crossed the Potomac River, at Seneca, with 8,000 cavalry, on June 28th, at the same time that Gen. Kilpatrick left Frederick for Hanover. Stuart moved northeast to the right of our army as far as Westminster, Md., burned seventeen canal boats, robbed and burned 168 Union Army wagons, and captured a number of straggling soldiers. From Westminster his army moved toward Hanover; the main body encamped for the night of June 29th, at Union Mills, Maryland. The advance had moved farther northeast and encamped a few miles southwest of Hanover. On the evening of the 29th, from the hills a distance south of the town, the Confederate advance caught sight of the Union cavalry, but the Union troops were unaware of the near approach of the enemy. About nine o'clock the next morning, a Union sharpshooter by deliberate aim picked off a Confederate officer, about three and one-half miles south-west of the town. This was the first blood shed on free soil during the civil war in an engagement, and was the first victim of the day. The Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry formed the last detachment of Gen. Kilpatrick's army. They were at first attacked in the rear by a squad of Confederate soldiers, dressed in the national uniform, and carrying an American flag. This occurred at the union of Westminister and Littletown roads and utterly demoralized the regiment, which extended from the point of first attack to Center Square. The advance of this regiment were in the center of the town, some of them dismounted, enjoying the hospitable bounties of generous citizens. The square and streets were lined with people, to feed and welcome the Union soldiers, unconscious of the fact that the enemy were attacking the rear. At this instant, Major Hammond, of the Fifth New York, mounted on a black charger, rode across the Square and in loud and measured tones exclaimed, "The citizens will please go into their houses; the rebels are about to charge into town." Confusion and consternation followed, and in an instant there was a clash of arms on Frederick Street, and the enemy came dashing forward with a terrific yell, capturing a number of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania in the square; the rest, becoming utterly demoralized, were driven as far north on Abbottstown Street, as the railroad.

On this first charge, a number of men were killed and wounded on the streets of the town, but providential it must have been, not a single citizen was injured, even though balls were flying in all directions, and most of them did not heed the advice of the officer who requested that they should go in their houses. Brig. Gens. Farnsworth and Custer, who had gone through town, soon came to the rescue. A part of Gen. Farnsworth's brigade, consisting of the Fifth New York, the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, the First Virginia and the Tenth Vermont Regiments, quickly countermarched, and with great courage and impetuosity drove the Confederate Army out of the town, and amid the shouts of the other Union soldiers, pursued them in hot haste to the Confederate artillery force, a short distance out on the Westminster road. There was then a lull of about half an hour. In the meantime, Gen. Kilpatrick, who with the advance guard of his army had gone as far as Abbottstown, and when within a few rods of the toll gate on the York turnpike, east of that town, received a message that Gen. Stuart had attacked the rear of his army. At this instant the booming of the guns was heard at Hanover, when, quick as a flash, the intrepid officer took in the whole situation at one grasp; ordered his lines to countermarch, and he, at the head of a small band of heroic followers, to avoid the confusion of returning to his rear on the turnpike, which was filled with soldiers and wagon trains, dashed across the fields; his spirited charger, by jumping the fences and ditches, and passing through fields of full-grown wheat and grass, conveyed his master with inconceivable rapidity to the scene of action. The faithful animal, though he performed an important act, never afterward recovered from the fearful strain. Kilpatrick in the midst of the confusion located his headquarters in room 24, of the Central Hotel, while Gen. Custer was in the house of the late Jacob Wirt (now Robert Wirt's home), and Gen. Farnsworth in the house of William Wirt (now owned by William Boadenhamer). In the meantime, the Eighteenth Pennsylvania occupied the town, and were barricading York and Baltimore Streets to impede the progress of the enemy in advancing on another charge. A rebel cannon or two were planted at a lime-kiln to the rear of Karl Forney's barn, and a number of shots were fired into town. At the expiration of half an hour from the time of the first charge, another charge was made by the Confederates, many of them coming from the direction of Stuart's headquarters, west of the cemetery. They entered the town through the alleys and by-ways, and a confused hand-to-hand encounter again took place on the streets and in Center Square. Farnsworth's brigade, above mentioned, including two Michigan regiments and the First Vermont, did valiant service in repelling the Confederate troops and driving them for the last time out of town. During this charge many thrilling and exciting hand to hand encounters took place. The guns of the Union Army were placed to the northwest of town, and the Confederate artillery on the Baltimore turnpike and west of the cemetery. For a short time rapid cannonading took place, exchanging shots between the two batteries which caused only a few casualties. The conflict continued from 10 A.M., to about noon, when Stuart gave up the contest, taking with him his wounded, whose number cannot accurately be given, but was not less than the Union loss. Leaving his dead lying scattered in the town and surrounding country, he went south and then east, crossing the Baltimore turnpike at the Brockley farm, about three and one-half miles south, of Hanover. Here with some Union citizens as prisoners, and captured soldiers, he marched toward Jefferson, from thence to New Salem (Neffstown), arriving there at 8 P. M., and remaining one hour, long enough to receive the news from some citizens, that Early and his Confederate Army had left York and was on his way to join Lee, but Stuart did not know where his commanding officer was. From New Salem the army slowly plodded along, the last arriving in Dover at sunrise next morning. At this point all the Union prisoners were paroled and they marched to York. . It was now the first day of July, the event of the first engagement at Gettysburg. Stuart, however, still uninformed as to the true situation of affairs, and of the whereabouts of Lee, moved on northwest through Warrington Township, taking from the farmers all the horses that could be captured, as they had done all along the whole route. The number of captured animals now numbered over a thousand. He continued forward through Dillsburg toward Carlisle, only to hear that it was evacuated by the Confederates. He then turned southward in time to take but a small part in the great conflict of Gettysburg, where his commanding general so much needed help, a fact which Gen. Lee often lamented. It will thus be seen that the engagement at Hanover, which was the first battle in the State of Pennsylvania, since that at Germantown in 1777, was really the beginning of the great conflict at Gettysburg, and as such should go into history. It had much to do in deciding that great contest. Gen. Lee many times said that what he so much needed the first days of the battle of Gettysburg was his cavalry. Stuart's absence, and Gen. Lee's not knowing of his whereabouts, caused much uneasiness on the part of the commanding general.

Gen. Kilpatrick after the engagement moved northward, to intercept the retreat of Gen. Early toward Gettysburg to join Gen. Lee. He struck the rear of Ewell's division by the village of Hampton, about ten miles north of Hanover, where a few shots were exchanged. He then proceeded west, and on the second and third days of the battle of Gettysburg, located southwest of the town on the extreme left of Gen. Meade's army. Gen. Farnsworth, one of his division commanders at Hanover, was killed at Gettysburg.


On the evening of the 30th a messenger bearing dispatches from the forces at Hanover to Gen. Schenck, then in command at Baltimore, was killed by mistake about 12 o'clock at night, in Codorus Township, on his way to Baltimore. He was mistaken for a Confederate straggler or spy. On the evening of June 30th, the Sixth Army Corps, under command of Gen. Sedgwick, and the Fifth Corps, under Gen. Stykes, encamped at Union Mills, eight miles southwest of Hanover. On the following night Sedgwick's corps encamped a few miles west of Hanover and Stykes' corps, which occupied the extreme right of Gen. Meade's army, moved toward Hanover. He had 15,400 men, with an immense train of wagons, containing provisions, munitions of war, and artillery. He encamped for a short time on the meadows, west of town, and on the level fields adjoining Plum Creek, intending to rest his horses and soldiers, when a dispatch-bearer brought a message to him from Gen. Meade, asking him to hasten to Gettysburg as soon as possible, which he accordingly did, arriving on the field of battle at 3 o'clock P.M., on July 2nd.


Gen. Sedgwick was killed in the battle of the Wilderness, in Virginia, in May of the next year, as was also the aged veteran, Gen. James S. Wadsworth of New York. Gen. Farnsworth, whose military bearing and courtly manners had won the hearts of many citizens at Hanover during his brief stay there, was killed at Gettysburg. The country's salvation claimed no nobler sacrifice. He significantly said to the barber at Hanover, when he shaved him, "my days of fighting are nearly over." Gen. Kilpatrick, who was but twenty-seven at the time of the battle, of Hanover, afterward did valiant service while in command of the cavalry on Gen. Sherman's famous "March to the Sea." He died a few years ago of Bright's disease of the kidneys, while representing the United States as minister in the Republic of Chili, South America. From him many of the facts of the engagement at Hanover were personally obtained. Gen. Custer, who after the war closed remained in the regular army, while commanding the Seventh United States Cavalry on a march against the Sioux Indians, in Montana, fell a victim to a horrible butchery on June 25, 1876, in the hands of the savages who greatly overpowered him in numbers. After a struggle, equalling in desperation and disaster any other Indian battle ever fought in America, he and his entire command were killed. It was generally believed that he was the last to fall.

The surgeon in charge of the Hanover hospital of the army of the Potomac, made the following official report to the government of the engagement of Hanover:


Alexander Gall, adjutant, Fifth New York Cavalry.

Selden Wales, sergeant, Fifth New York Cavalry.

E.S. Dye, sergeant, Fifth New York Cavalry.

George Collins, sergeant, First Virginia Cavalry.

John Laniger, private, Fifth New York Cavalry.

William Crawford, private, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

David Winninger, private, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

Jacob Harnly, private, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

C. Rathburn, private, Fifth Michigan Cavalry.

John Hoffacker, corporal, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

One unknown.

Total number of Union soldiers killed - 11.

John Hoffacker, one of the killed, lived a few miles south of Hanover.


J.H. Little, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company B, saber cut in head and shoulder.

E. Jeffries, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company A, gun-shot in arm.

William Smith, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company I, hit with shell in hip.

William Cole, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company A, a saber cut.

John Herrick, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company B, gun-shot in back.

Jere Develan, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company I, saber cut in head.

John Montgomery, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company F, saber cut in head.

A.W. Stone, Eighteenth Pennsy1vania, Company B, gun-shot in temple.

A. Setterball, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company F, bruise from fall of horse.

S. Rodbaugh, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company M, bruise in face and head.

S. Jones, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company F, gun-shot in back.

J. Conner, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company D, saber cut in head.

M.B. Maswell, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company G, contusion in back.

Moses Harrison, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company A, contusion in head.

Chadrack Tellers, Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Company G, leg broken.

J.W. Brooks, First Virginia, Company L, bruise from shell.

Thomas McGuire, First Virginia, Company II, gun-shot in thigh.

Henry Holman, First Virginia, Company L, gun-shot in face.

H. Bucher, First Virginia, Company F, pistol shot in thigh.

lieutenant Max Carroll, First Virginia, Company F, wounded in thigh.

James Livingston, Seventh Michigan, Company F, gun-shot.

Jasper Brown, Fifth Michigan, Company D, shot in breast.

Maj. White, Fifth New York, gun-shot, serious.

Thomas Richey, Fifth New York, Company A, bruise in leg.

Brad Wessart, Fifth New York, Company A, saber cut in head.

James Hayes, Fifth New York, Company A, saber cut in shoulder.

Corp. McMullen, Fifth New York, Company F, saber cut, head and shoulder.

Henry Tuthill, Fifth New York, Company T, bruise from horse falling on the charge.

P. Schemmerhorn, Fifth New York, Company D, bruised by carbine.

Corp. Updegrove, Fifth New York, Company D, wound in hip.

J.B. Updike, Fifth New York, Company D, saber cut in head.

William Sampson, Fifth New York, Company H, saber cut in arm and foot.

Corp. Kistner, Fifth New York, Company C, saber cut in neck, serious.

George Gardells, Fifth New York, Company B, gun shot, serious.

William Lively, Fifth New York, Company H, saber cut in arm and neck.

Corp. N. Barrum, Fifth New York, Company G, gun shot in arm and neck.

Sergt. Owen McNulty, Fifth New York, Company C, gun shot in arm and finger.

Corp. James McKinley, Fifth New York, Company D, gun shot in arm and head.

Emilie Portier, Fifth New York, Company F, gun shot in arm and breast.

Sergt. J.S. Trowbridge, Fifth New York, Company E, leg amputated.

H. W. Monroe, Fifth New York, Company E, wounded in side, serious.

B. Alexander, Fifth New York, Company E, saber cut in head.

A. C. Rowe, Fifth New York, Company E, saber cut in face.


The entire number of Union soldiers wounded was forty-two. The government authorities at once used Concert Hall and Marion Hall as hospitals, and the wounded were placed in them. Pleasant Hill hotel was afterward secured and was used for a considerable time as a government hospital in charge of a surgeon, who was removed from his position in August. Soon after the engagement in Hanover, and the battle of Gettysburg, 150 wounded soldiers were placed here. Sergeant J. S. Trowbridge of the Fifth New York Cavalry, whose leg was amputated, died five days after the battle, while still in the hospital. Some of the Confederate wounded were admitted to the hospital; of these Isaac Peel, of the Second North Carolina, died of a wound in his head. The patriotic ladies of Hanover ministered to the wants of the sick and wounded, and were unceasing in their efforts to comfort them. An army officer reported, in relation to this hospital,
"that every desired comfort is furnished with great abundance, and every luxury, with which the country abounds in rich profusion, is supplied by sympathetic people, and in most instances, administered to the suffering wounded by devoted women. A heartier response to the calls of humanity, never came from a more generous people than we have witnessed here. The Ladies' Aid Society every day bring bed-clothing, bandages and other necessities."

On 4th of August, the unfortunate death of E. Cady, of Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, occurred, after intense suffering. It is related as a sad sight: A few hours before his death an affectionate sister arrived to minister to the wants of her wounded brother, only to find that she was too late. She then revealed the fact that her dead brother was the sole support of herself and her widowed mother, whom she stated would want the remains conveyed to her home, but lack of funds forbid it. Some generous-hearted and sympathetic citizens immediately raised a sufficient amount to have the body embalmed, and it was sent home for interment. This was but one of the many similar distressing and heart-rending scenes that took place during the dark times of the civil war.

Cowell, a deserter, who was shot by a guard in Hanover while trying to escape, also died in hospital. On August 15, the soldiers of the Hanover hospital were transferred to Gettysburg.

Soon after the terrible battle of Gettysburg, about 12,000 wounded soldiers passed through Hanover, and were placed in the United States hospitals in Wilmington, Baltimore, Newark, York, and Philadelphia. A violent rain storm followed, as is customary after every great battle. The Bermudian and the Conewago creeks became very high. The former overflowed its banks and did more damage to mill property than was ever known before.


Within the old Marsh Creek country, which for just one-half a century belonged to York County, was fought the great and decisive battle of Gettysburg. It immediately followed the attack at Hanover, of which the latter really was the beginning. The interest of the greater conflict at Gettysburg so engrossed the public mind at the time, that the importance of the engagement at Hanover was overlooked. Had Gen. Stuart known that Lee's army was so near him, and gone to Gettysburg from Hanover, on the night of the 30th of June, instead of making the detour across York County to Carlisle, and from thence to Gettysburg the result of the battle of Gettysburg might have been different, or at least much more stubbornly contested on the first and second days of that eventful struggle. It was on the hallowed soil, around that now world-renowned borough, that the flower of the Southern chivalry, 90,000 strong, under the command of a disciplined and able general, for three long hot summer days closely contested the ground. The result from the first two days seemed to hang on a balance, but the masterly skill of Gen. Meade was shown on the third day's struggle. The Potomac army, with him as commander, which position was conferred upon him by President Lincoln but a few hours before the engagement, was eager to meet the enemy on Northern soil. The particulars of this battle need not here be recounted, but the civilized world knows the result. 25,000 sons of the South were lost in killed, wounded and captured in that eventful conflict. At the same time, Gen. Pemberton surrendered about the same number of men to Gen. Grant at Vicksburg. The Confederate Army thus lost, in all, nearly 70,000 men in three days. These men could never be replaced, and from that time forth, the Confederacy was on the wane.


On Saturday, the 27th of June, 1863, Col. White, with about 250 cavalrymen, passed through Jefferson on to Hanover Junction, where they burned the railroad bridges. Returning the same evening, they crossed over toward York, after knocking in the heads of two barrels of whiskey belonging to Jacob Rebert, and setting fire to a car-load of bark, owned by Henry Rebert, at Jefferson. Station.

On Tuesday afternoon, on the 30th of June, at about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart entered the town from the west, a few hours after the engagement at Hanover. He immediately took possession and planted cannon on the hills north and south of the village, expecting soon to be attacked by Gen. Kilpatrick's cavalry. Guards were stationed all around the town, and no one permitted to leave it. Many persons of this locality had been deluded by the pretensions of a league, which claimed to be able to protect them from injury and their horses from capture if they joined it. In consequence of this, very few horses and valuables were taken eastward to avoid capture. It was a rich harvest for the marauding hordes, and about 100 horses were taken in the town and vicinity. The behavior of the Confederate soldiers here was not in keeping with their conduct elsewhere in the county. Many of them were exceedingly tired and hungry from the exhaustive march. They demanded all the food that could be obtained, stopped several market wagons, and robbed them, even went to the bee-hives and took the honey, and ransacked the stores of William Christ, Albert Kraft and Jacob Rebert. The last of this army passed through the village about 3 A.M., Wednesday, from thence to New Salem, to Dover, to Dillsburg, to Carlisle, and from thence to the battle of Gettysburg.

On Wednesday night, or rather on Thursday morning, the villagers were awakened by the arrival of a squad of 1,000 Union cavalry, belonging to Gen. Gregg's division. They came north through Manchester, Md., and Codorus Township, and were on their way to York. A few miles east of Jefferson they were intercepted by a courier with a message demanding their presence at Gettysburg. It was on the early morning of the 2nd of July, and was the dawn of the second day of the great conflict at Gettysburg. The moon was shining brightly as they entered the town of Jefferson from the east. The advance guard was singing the familiar hymn, "Dear fathers, will you meet us." The rear, in answer, sung the refrain, "We will meet in the promised land." They passed on west through Hanover, and on the afternoon of that day this band of soldiers joined the main body of Gen. Gregg's army, and participated in the terrible cavalry battle at Bonneauville, a few miles east of Gettysburg, where many hundreds of patriotic sons "yielded up their lives that this nation might live." It is memorable as one of the most terrible cavalry battles of the civil war.


The advance guard of Stewart's Confederate Cavalry entered Dover at 2 o'clock, Wednesday morning of July, 1863, and by 8 o'clock the entire force was encamped on the level plains surrounding the town. Stuart was on his way to Carlisle, still not knowing the position of Gen. Lee's army. Most of his men were poorly clad. They came to Dover from Hanover, by way of Jefferson and New Salem, and early in the morning paroled twenty-one Union prisoners who had been captured at the engagement with Kilpatrick's army at Hanover the day before, and released a number of citizens who were captives. The paroled troops went immediately to York. The Confederate soldiers fed their horses from the best of oats and corn Dover Township afforded, obtained from the citizens of the town and vicinity the choicest food they could furnish. In a very short time all prepared victuals were exhausted, and- the women were put to baking and cooking for their uninvited guests. Dover Township was soon scoured, and a rich harvest of 387 horses obtained. Many a Dover Township horse and his Southern rider, fell in great cavalry contests at Bonneauville and Hunterstown, near Gettysburg, the next day. During the forenoon a small squad of Gen. Pleasonton's Union. Cavalry came in sight of Dover, and an engagement was momentarily expected near the Dover churchyard, the silent resting place of Capt. Greaff, and many of his brave Revolutionary patriots. The Union troops being inferior in numbers withdrew toward Gettysburg. About this time Gen. Wade Hampton, who has since been a governor of and United States senator from South Carolina, wrote a message in the office of Dr. John Ahl, and sent it off with a courier. At 1 P.M., the Confederate soldiers took up their march toward Carlisle on the State road, but sending out predatory parties on the right and left flanks, Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee commanding one of them.

For the valuable draught horse an old worn out nag was frequently exchanged, with which the farmer was compelled to cut his ripening harvest. Civil War Databases

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