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Civil War History of Franklin County PAextracted from History of Franklin County by Samuel P. Bates, published in 1887.
The civil war which convulsed the American continent and astounded the world from 1861 to 1865, is one of thrilling historic interest. Its causes, its deeds of heroic daring, its varying successes, its magnitude, its illustrious civil and military actors on both sides, the new ideas of statesmanship developed, its test of the capacity of man for self-government, its influence on the future of the New World as well as upon the Old, the dawn of a new era of educational, mechanical, social and political progress - these must all be wisely and dispassionately studied. He, therefore, who expects to read its history successfully, by commencing with the firing on Fort Sumter in 1861, and reading the narrative of its thrilling events only to the surrender of the last Confederate Army in 1865, commits a fatal mistake.
To say the civil war continued only four years is historically incorrect. Its causes can be traced for centuries prior to the firing upon and capitulation of Fort Sumter, and its consequences upon American civilization will end only with the last knell of time. Its causes may be assigned, philosophically, to the basic conflict in human nature, which an inspired apostle represents as a warfare between the flesh and the spirit - an "irrepressible conflict," whose duration is coextensive with earthly existence, and whose victory, sometimes on one side, and sometimes on the other, is never final, till death separates the contestants. But, fixing the origin of this "irrepressible conflict" more definitely as to time and place, let it be remarked, that in the colonization of this country two radically different molds of civilization were established. The colony at Jamestown, Va., in 1607, was composed largely of pleasure-seeking, wealth-desiring gentlemen of leisure, who ardently sought, in the New World, what could be obtained with difficulty in the Old. Its first members, coveting that which would enhance bodily comfort, brought with them no well-defined, deep-rooted moral convictions; came not because of persecutions for righteousness sake in the parent country, nor because of any burning desire to establish any special theory of education or government. They represented the jovial, ease-loving classes of Europe, and their thoughts and purposes in the new world would, under the operation of the law that like begets like, reproduce and impress themselves upon their progeny. This colony passed readily and naturally from a system of white serfdom to the adoption and perpetuation of African slavery. In other words, it found African labor and bondage congenial to its natural tastes, and easily became its exponent and defender.
Virginia became, and remained, the dominant power in what was subsequently known as the Southern States. She was the mother, not only of presidents and statesmen, but of systems of education and theories of government as well. Jamestown was the germinal, typical, dominant Southern colony, whose impress was stamped indelibly upon that region.
The New England colonies, and notably that of Plymouth in 1620, were founded by persons naturally no more intelligent, but men and women of deep convictions as to the rights of the people and the powers of government - persons whose persecutions in the parent country had induced them to endure the perils of a turbulent sea voyage, and the hardships and privations of pioneer life. Family, school, church and state, free speech, free press and freedom of conscience - these all came with the original colonists. The subsequent cases of intolerance exhibited toward dissenters, were only instances of honest convictions, somewhat misguided, striving for their own exaltation. The final rejection of African slavery was based, not wholly upon the unproductiveness of the system, but largely on the promptings of a quickened conscience, which recognized the enormity of a property-inheritance in human flesh and blood and brain.
Says a prominent American writer and statesman: "The character of the original settlers determined the character of the social and political institutions, while subsequently these institutions in their turn determined the character of the inhabitants. * * Thus we trace in the first stages of American history two distinct currents, one running in the direction of permanent social and political distinctions, and the other in the direction of social and political equality - the one essentially aristocratic, the other essentially democratic These currents were running smoothly side by side as long as they were kept asunder by the separate colonial governments; but they became directly antagonistic as soon as, by the organization of the different colonies into one republic, a field of common problems was opened to them where they had to meet. Then the question arose which of the two currents should determine the character of the future development of the American Republic." This question, "Which type of civilization shall control the destinies of the republic?" was the problem that demanded the wisest statesmanship, the most prudent legislation and the most conciliatory policy for nearly two and a half centuries. The friction which it produced was the "irrepressible conflict" in political life. Human slavery, the cause of it all, was fortified behind the doctrine of State supremacy as opposed to national supremacy. Two sections of one great commonwealth, permeated by radically unlike theories of government, were jealous of each others interests. Agitation, infractions of law, exciting speeches, publications of an inflammatory character, Northern aid to negroes escaping from bondage, and Southern intolerance of Northern sentiments and public men, want of free communication between the great sections - these brought about a frenzied spirit in the South, and transferred the conflict from the field of legislation to the field of battle. The conflict which had, through varying phases, been raging for centuries, and which had been stayed at times only by compromises in the interests of slavery, was renewed in deadly earnest on the field of carnage. The civil war was but a continuation of the legislative war.
We are now prepared to draw a few practical inferences from what has preceded:
The civil war, of which Gettysburg is the typical battle, was one of colossal proportions. From semi-official records the following, statistics are obtained: Total number of troops furnished by all the States for the Union army, 2,859,132; the entire number for the Confederate Army was probably about 1,500,000, though one Confederate officer* puts it as low as 650,000. The Union losses were as follows: Killed in battle, 61,362; died afterward, 34,727; died of disease, 183,281; total, 279,376. The Confederate losses were: Killed in action, 51,527; died of wounds or disease, 133,821; total, 185,348. This is probably but a partial statement. Number of troops who died while prisoners: Union, 29,725; Confederate, 26,774. Number of Union troops captured, 212,608; number of Confederate troops captured, 476,169. Number of deserters from Union Army, 199,105; number of deserters from Confederate Army, 104,428. The total number of Confederate wounded is quoted at 227,871; the Union losses must have been considerably larger in proportion to the armies.
The total expenses of the civil war, direct and indirect, are put down as $6,189,928, 008. If this amount be divided by the number of slaves liberated (4,000,000), it shows that every case of freedom incurred a money value of over $1, 500, to say nothing of the untold death and suffering and anguish involved.
SCENES OF 1861
Early on the morning of April 12, 1861, the telegraph announced the attack by Southern troops under command of Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard on Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor. But a short time elapsed before messages were-received announcing the capitulation of the garrison under Maj. Robt. Anderson, the lowering of the stars and stripes and the substitution of the palmetto flag. With this message came the announcement that President Lincoln had called for 75,000 soldiers to serve for the period of three months in crushing the unholy rebellion thus inaugurated by the secessionists. Intense excitement characterized all classes. The stars and stripes were unfurled from banks, hotels, public and many private buildings. When the flag of the country was dishonored by Southern traitors, the loyal heart of Americans was touched. Public meetings were held, patriotic speeches made, and popular heart fired with a sense of the gross outrage perpetrated upon the national emblem and authority.
In Chambersburg excitement ran high. At a public meeting, held on the evening of April 17, addresses of a stirring character were made by Messrs. Brewer, Sharpe, Douglas, Stewart, Rowe, McCauley, Cook and others, and several thousand dollars pledged for the maintenance of the families of soldiers who should respond to their country's call. The following committees were appointed: On general regulations, D.W. Rowe, Samuel Shryock and W.C. Eyster; committee on contributions, J. Allison Eyster, J.W. Douglas and James Nill; committee to supply pocket Bibles to the soldiers, Ex-Sheriff Brown, I.H. McCauley and A.N. Rankin.
On Thursday evening, the 18th, a pole, 120 feet in length, was raised in the center of the Diamond, and surmounted with a beautiful banner. The occasion was made memorable by the singing of "The Star Spangled Banner" by a band of patriotic ladies in front of the Franklin Hotel, and the delivery of soul- thrilling speeches by Messrs. McClure, Stumbaugh, Reilly, Brewer, Everett, Stenger and Welsh. This pole stood as a witness of the patriotic impulses of the people of the community until Gen. Imboden's rebel cavalry cut it down as they were following the rear of Lee's army to Gettysburg.
THREE MONTHS MEN
The morning train of April 19 carried to Harrisburg Franklin County's first contribution to the Union cause in the late war, the Chambers Artillery, composed of 150 men and commanded by Peter B. Housum, captain; John Doebler, first lieutenant; Matthew Gillan, second lieutenant; George Miles, third lieutenant.
On reaching Camp Curtin, near Harrisburg, this company was divided into two companies, Captain Housum commanding one, and lieutenant Doebler the other. The two, with a third, under Captain J.G. Elder, were attached to the Second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers.
SECOND REGIMENT PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS2nd Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., April 21, 1861, with the following officers:
Colonel, Frederick S. Stumbaugh, of Chambersburg, Penn.; lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Welsh; major, James Given; adjutant, Isaac S. Waterbury; quartermaster, George F. Smith; surgeon, James H. Dobbins; assistant surgeon, John S. King, of Mercersburg, Penn.; sergeant-major, D. Watson Rowe, of Greencastle; the colonel, assistant surgeon and sergeant-major were the only regimental officers from Franklin County.
Company A. - Recruited in Chambersburg, Penn., was mustered in April 20, 1861, with the following officers:
Captain, Peter B. Housum; first lieutenant, George Stitzel; second lieutenant, K. Shannon Taylor; first sergeant, Thomas G. Cochran; second sergeant, Samuel M. McDowell; third sergeant, Adam F. Smith; fourth sergeant, Bruce Lambert; first corporal, Allison McDowell; second corporal, Thomas Myers; third corporal, John F. Snider; fourth corporal, John F. Pensinger; musician, Frederick Shinefield; sixty-four privates.
Company B. - Recruited in Chambersburg, Penn., was mustered in April 20, 1861, with the following officers:
Captain, John Doebler; first lieutenant, George L. Miles; second lieutenant, George W. Welsh; first sergeant, Benjamin Bodes; second sergeant, Alex. C. Landis; third sergeant, Joseph Thomas; fourth sergeant, George Cook; first corporal, Harry Melvin; second corporal, David L. Hoffman; third corporal, Harry McCauley; fourth corporal, Porter J. Brown; musician, Peter Ackerman; sixty privates.
Company C. - Recruited in St. Thomas and Greencastle, Penn., was mustered in April 20, 1861, with the following officers:
Captain, James G. Elder; first lieutenant, Joseph B. Strickler; second lieutenant. Jacob West; first sergeant, William H. Shorb; second sergeant, George H. Miller; third sergeant, Jacob Snider, fourth sergeant, George A. Pool; first corporal, Theodore Koons; second corporal, Thaddeus S. Riley; third corporal, Thomas Hill: fourth corporal, David C. Shafer; musicians, Joel Happle, Edwin Byers: sixty privates.
This regiment was attached to the department of Washington, Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson commanding, and served most of the term of enlistment in and around Martinsburg and Winchester, Va. Mustered out of service at Harrisburg. Penn., July 26, 1861.
On the day the Chambers Artillery went to Harrisburg, lieutenant Jones with the detachment of United States troops which had occupied Harpers Ferry and which, on the approach of Virginia troops to seize the arsenal, had blown up the works, arrived in Chambersburg en route for the barracks at Carlisle. His advent created considerable excitement and confirmed the impression that war was inevitable.
The first troops from Path Valley were the volunteer company at Fannettsburg, known as the "Washington Blues," commanded by Captain John H. Walker and Lients. S.O. McCurdy and John H. Witherow. It was an old company, but at the time of the Presidents call for troops mustered about forty men. They filled their ranks and, adding a few recruits at Strasburg, reached Chambersburg on April 21 with seventy-four men. Arriving, they reported to Gov. Curtin, expecting to join the other three companies already at Harrisburg. But they had gone with the Second Regiment to the field, and Walkers company was ordered to "go into quarters at Chambersburg and render such aid to the citizens as was in their power." Owing to the threatening outlook along the border, Chambersburg became a point of considerable interest. In a few days two regiments, the Seventh and Eighth Pennsylvania, commanded by Cols. William H. Irvin and A.H. Emley, respectively, were sent thither and went into camp. The "Washington Blues," together with three other infantry companies, a rifle company under command of Captain John S. Eyster, and one from St. Thomas, under Captain W.D. Dixon, (one from Fulton County) and one artillery company, commanded by Captain Charles T. Campbell, of St. Thomas, forming an independent battalion under Maj. McAllen, were kept on drill, and guard duty and detached service until they were discharged. The companies of Capts. Walker, Dixon and Eyster soon after became parts of the Pennsylvania Reserves by re-enlistment. Captain Campbell's artillery also went into active service. The camp occupied by these troops was known as "Camp Irvin," being the fair grounds west of town.
The Seventh and Eighth Regiments were, after a short time, transferred from the fair grounds to a good, well-watered field east of town, belonging to Mr. Eberly. This camp was called "Camp Slifer," in honor of the secretary of the commonwealth. In a week or so these regiments were joined by the Tenth, under command of Col. S.A. Meredith. For nearly four weeks these three regiments, with the independent battalion already mentioned, were the only troops quartered at Chambersburg. On the 28th the Second and Third Regiments, the former containing the three Franklin County companies, arrived in town, on their way up the valley with Patterson's army. Many of the men were granted brief furloughs to visit their friends.
On June 2 Maj.-Gen. Patterson arrived in town to organize his army for movement up the valley against Harper's Ferry, and other points occupied by the rebels. The organization completed was as follows:
First Division---Brev.Maj.-Gen. George Cadwallader commanding, consisting of First, Third and Fourth Brigades.
First Brigade - Col. George H. Thomas, Second United States Cavalry, commanding, consisting of four counties United States Cavalry, and First Philadelphia City Troop, Captain James; battalion of artillery and infantry, Captain Doubleday; First Rhode Island Regiment-and battery, Col. Burnside; Sixth Pennsylvania Regiment, Col. Nagle; Twenty-first Pennsylvania Regiment, Col. Ballier; Twenty-third Pennsylvania Regiment, Col. Dare.
Third Brigade - Brig.-Gen. E.C. Williams commanding, consisting of Seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Irwin; Eighth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Emly; Tenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Col. Meredith; Twentieth Regiment, Scott. Legion, Col. Gray.
Fourth Brigade - Col. D.S. Miles, United States Infantry, commanding, consisting of Second and Third United States Infantry. Maj. Sheppard; Ninth Pennsylvania, Col. Lougenecker; Thirteenth Pennsylvania, Col. Rowley; Sixteenth Pennsylvania, Col. Zeigle.
Second Division - Maj.-Gen. William H. Keim, commanding, consisting of the Second and Fifth Brigades.
Second Brigade - Brig.-Gen. G.C. Wyncoop, commanding, consisting of First Pennsylvania, Col. Yoke; Second Pennsylvania, Col. Stumbaugh; Third Pennsylvania, Col. Minier; Twenty-fourth Pennsylvania, Col. Owens.
Fifth Brigade - Brig.-Gen. J.S. Negley, commanding, consisting of First Wisconsin, Col. Starkweather; Fourth Connecticut, Col. Woodhouse; Eleventh Pennsylvania, Col. Jarrett; Fourteenth Pennsylvania, Col. Johnson; Fifthteenth Pennsylvania, Col. Oakford.
Pattersons army, consisting of about 20,000 brave men with good officers, left Chambersburg on the 7th of June. It was expected that he would defeat the enemy wherever found, and do valiant service for his country. Impartial history, however, has nothing of the kind to record. With true patriotic soldiers in his army, he should have met and defeated Johnston, and prevented his pushing on rapidly to join Beauregard at Manassas. His delay resulted in the rout of McDowell at Bull Run, and contributed to the prolongation of the war.
The notion held at first that war was but a "breakfast job" was soon dispelled, and additional troops were called into service for longer periods. Many, in fact most, of those who had entered the three months service, were ready to enter for "three years or during the war." Northern patriotism, thoroughly genuine when aroused, required the stimulus of defeat to make it respond to the call of duty. When completely wrought up, it was enduring. Franklin County responded generously to every demand made upon her.
THIRTY-FIFTH REGIMENT, SIXTH RESERVES - THREE YEARS35th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, June 22, 1861, under Col. W. Wallace Ricketts of Columbia County.
Company D, from Franklin County, was officered as follows: Captains - William D. Dixon, promoted to lieutenant-colonel September 12, 1863; Joseph A. Davison, promoted from first-sergeant to first-lieutenant, August 1, .1862; to captain, September 19, 1863; to brevet major or brevet lieutenant-colonel, March 13, 1865. D. Vance, resigned July 26, 1862. William Burgess, promoted from second to first lieutenant, September 19, 1863; brevet captain March 13, 1865. Sergeants, David F. Leisher, Henry Boley, Calvin M. Hassler, John W. Hart, Philip Bessor, John M. Lewis, John P. Welsh, Samuel K. Furley. Corporal, J. Levi Roush, John H. Jarrett, John B. Hymans, William Holkamb, Simon H. Burns, George Bessor, Phineas B. Hollar, John McElwee, William C. Rithour.
The Sixth Reserves was attached to the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the following battles: Dranesville, December 20, 1861; Bull Run, August 29 and 30, 1862; South Mountain, September 14, 1862; Antietam, September 16, 1862; Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; Gettysburg, July 2, 3 and 4, 1863; Bristol Station, October 12, 1863; New Hope Church, November 26, 1863; the battle of the Wilderness, commencing May 5, and ending May 22, 1864, with its crowning success at Bethesda Church. Mustered out at Harrisburg, Penn., June 1, 1864.
FORTY-FIRST REGIMENT, TWELFTH RESERVES - THREE YEARS41st Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, August 10, 1861, with John H. Taggart, of Philadelphia, as colonel.
Company K, Franklin County. - Captain, John S. Eyster; first lieutenant, Jesse Little; second lieutenant, Elisha D. Reed; first sergeant, Joseph R. Duffield; sergeants, L.D. Middlekauff, W.R. Pilkington, H.D. Witmer, Samuel C. Giffin; Corporal, John W. Setchel, Frank W. Hench, John H. Snow, John G. Rohm, John Patton, Joseph F. Rhodes, William A. Frey, George M. Barnitz; musicians, Christian C. Eckert, William Smith. This company was disbanded July 20, 1862, the commissioned officers discharged and the enlisted men distributed among the other companies of the regiment. Previous to this time the regiment participated in the following engagements of the Army of the Potomac: Dranesville, December 20, 1861, and the seven days fight on the Peninsula, in June and July, 1862. The regiment was mustered out of service June 11, 1864.
FORTY-THIRD REGIMENT, FIRST ARTILLERY - THREE YEARS43rd Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg in May, 1861, with Charles T. Campbell, of Franklin County, as colonel.
Battery A, Franklin County. - Captains: Hezekiah Easton, killed at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862; John G. Simpson, dismissed August 21, 1864; William Stitt, promoted to second lieutenant August 1, 1861, to first lieutenant December 26, 1861, to captain September 17, 1864. First lieutenants: W.H. Sollenberger, resigned November 12, 1861; H.E. Polegrove, resigned December 1, 1861, Samuel D. Martin, promoted to first sergeant March 6, 1862, to second lieutenant February 24, 1864, to first lieutenant November 27, 1864; William R. Brow, promoted to first sergeant December 1, 1864, to first lieutenant March 1, 1865. Second lieutenants: Jacob L. Deitrick, wounded at. Bull Run, August 30, 1862; discharged January 24, 1862. Peter Cummings, dismissed December 18, 1863. John H. Cline, promoted to corporal December 18, 1862, to sergeant December 24, 1863, to second lieutenant March 1, 1865. First sergeant, John N. Young; quartermaster-sergeant, Daniel Nerhood; commissary-sergeant, George W. Kline; sergeants, James W. Miller, Jefferson Sauser, Gustavus Seyferth, George W. Tritte, Hiram Warriner, W.H. Whitemarsh, Josiah Hensey, William H. Lawrence, William Jones, Edward Long, John Reese, John Spahr, Robert Taylor, Benjamin I. Moore; Corporal, Samuel Borts, Isaac Hime, Jefferson Mutchler, Henry D. Barr, George W. Bonnet, George Gressley, Cyrus D. Chapman, Benjamin W. Falls, Anthony Gressley, Charles Mehring, Daniel B. Bagley, Howard Muchler, James W. De Wolf, W.P.A. McDowell, Peter Shelley, Thomas Potter, Robert Snyder; bugler, Joseph E. Ramsdall.
Battery A was attached to the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the battles of Dranesville, December 20, 1861; Fair Oaks. Mechanicsville, Beaver Dam Creek, Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862 (where its gallant commander, Captain Easton, was killed, his last words being: "No, we never surrender"); Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg. Being transferred to the Army of the James, it operated on the Black Water, at Deep Bottom, Fort Darling, Seven Pines and Petersburg. Upon the fall of Richmond it entered the fallen city on the day of its surrender, and took part in demolishing the rebel defenses and arsenal mustered out of service at Harrisburg, Penn., July 25, 1865.
Battery G. -This battery was recruited at Philadelphia, but one of its gallant commanders, Captain Mark Kern, was a citizen of Chambersburg. He was killed at Bull Run, August 30, 1862.
SEVENTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT - THREE YEARS77th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Pittsburgh in October, 1861, with the following officers: Colonel, Frederick S. Stumbaugh, promoted to brigadier- general, November 29, 1862; lieutenant-colonel, Peter B. Housum, died January 1, 1863, from wounds received at Stone River, Term. Assistant surgeon, Jacob S. Maurer. Commissary-sergeant, Thomas G. Cochran. Hospital steward, Charles H. Cressler. Principal musicians, Francis M. Donovan, John Stoner.
Company A of this regiment was recruited at Chambersburg, Penn. Captains: Samuel R. McKesson, discharged February 3, 1863. John E. Walker, promoted from first lieutenant to captain, May 15, 1863; killed near Atlanta, Ga., August 5, 1864. Albert G. Stark, promoted from corporal to sergeant, August 2, 1862; to first sergeant, February 13, 1863; to first lieutenant, August 24, 1863; to captain, September 8, 1864, wounded at Resaca, Ga., May 16,1864. G. Washington Skinner, promoted to sergeant, July 5, 1864; to first lieutenant, August 1, 1865. First lieutenant, David F. Daihl, promoted to first lieutenant, October 4, 1865; wounded at Nashville, Tenn., December 8, 1864. Second lieutenants: Joseph Thomas, promoted to captain of Company H; Arthur Bennet, promoted to second lieutenant, March 31, 1862; discharged February 2, 1863. William Eaker, promoted to second lieutenant, September 1, 1865 wounded at Liberty, Gap, Tenn., June 25, 1863. First sergeants, Elwood B. Reese, John W. Bryson and David B. Miller; sergeants, Joseph Fisher, George Starley, John A. Borland Martin St. Clair, William H. Pensinger, David E. Stoner, Christian Burkholder, Samuel S. Ramsey, Jacob Sites, John J. Forsyth, Oliver J. Gamble, Frederick Sharp, Randal Childers, Jacob Lackey, Frank Patterson, Thomas Laywell, Harrison Norris, William Hockersmith, William Bradley, William H. Gonder, John Betz, John F. Pensinger; Corporal, Jeremiah Row, John W. Bowman, Milton M. Horton, Frederick Berkle, James Rouzer, John Row, Stephen O. Skinner, Timothy Sullivan and James Cannon.
Parts of Companies D, G and H were also from Franklin County. Among the commissioned officers of Company D were captain, Jesse R. Frey, and second lieutenants, Charles H. Cressler and Thomas G. Cochran; and of Company H, captain, Joseph Thomas, and first lieutenant, James F. Shattuck, all of Chambersburg.
The Seventy-seventh Regiment was attached to the Army of the Cumberland, and participated in the battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, Stone River, Murfreesboro, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Tunnel Hill, Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Kingston, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Franklin and Nashville. In July, 1865, the regiment was ordered to Texas, where it remained until December 5, when it received orders to return home, and was mustered out at Philadelphia, Penn., January 16, 1866.
EIGHTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT - THREE YEARS87th Regiment
This regiment was organized in September, 1861, under Col. George Hay, of York, Penn.
Company K, Franklin County, was officered as follows: Captain, David B. Greenawalt; first-lieutenant, Simon H. Foreman; second lieutenant, John C. Brown; first sergeant, John McAllister; sergeants, S.S. Stocksieger, Abraham D. Bitter, William H. Weikert, George W. Mowers; Corporal, George A. Birsecker, John H. Dubbs, W.A.M. Renfrew, George F. Burns, Henry A. Cook, William H. Hummer and Ignatius Lightner.
Company K was mustered in, March 17, 1865, at the time of the reorganization of the regiment, and was mustered out, June 29, 1865; attached to the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the charge upon the works before Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865.
ONE HUNDRED AND THIRD REGIMENT - THREE YEARS103rd Regiment
This regiment was organized on February 24, 1862, under Col. Theodore F. Lehman, and was reorganized in March, 1865, when Company A, eighty-eight officers and men, from Franklin County, became connected with it. The war having closed, the regiment was mustered out of service June 25, 1865.
Company A. - Captain, Elias K. Lehman; first lieutenant, George C. Carson; second lieutenant, Samuel H. Eicholtz; first sergeant, Frederick K. Rife; sergeants, Peter Leer, John G. Ritter, Samuel Lentz and Amos G. Huber; Corporal, George Robertson, H.W. Hurtsell, Fedde Fixson, Jacob G. Eicholtz, Joseph Gabler, William W. Hewitt, Henry L. Reitzell and Israel Slothoner.
ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTH REGIMENT - THREE YEARS107th Regiment
It was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., March 5, 1862, by the election of Thomas A. Zeigle, of York County, as colonel. Two citizens of Franklin County, Robert W. McAllen and Jas. Mac. Thompson, served as lieutenant-colonels of the regiment.
Company K, Franklin County, was organized with the following officers: Captains, A. Jackson Brand, resigned November 24, 1862, and Benjamin Bodes, promoted from first lieutenant November 24, 1862; first lieutenant, Thomas Myers, promoted from first sergeant February 6, 1863; second lieutenants, George F. Cook, resigned December 29, 1862; Alex. C. Landis, promoted from first sergeant December 31, 1862, discharged November 26, 1863, and Harrison H. Hutton; first sergeant, John R. Michaels; sergeants, William J.Norton, Nicholas Haines, John B. Lesher, John P. Ward, William Ackerman, James Ridgeley, William E. Shuman, John Ferguson, William H. Horner, Joseph W. Michaels, James Jackson, Jacob Shaffer, Hugh F. Gordon, Henry Dorn, Matthias Stondagle, Thomas Dunkinson and James Mayhue.
This company served in the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the following battles: Cedar Mountain, Bull Run, Turner's Gap, South Mountain, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Hope Chapel, Petersburg and the capture of, Richmond; mustered out of service July 13, 1865.
John T. Dick, of Mercersburg, was captain of Company H, and was killed at Bull Run, Va., August 30, 1862.
ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTH REGIMENT - THREE YEARS108th Regiment
Eleventh Cavalry. - This regiment was organized October 8, 1861, and a large number of the members of the different companies were from Franklin County, but the only company organized here was Company D. The county was represented in the regimental staff by the following officers: Lieutenant- colonel, George Stitzel; major, John S. Nimmon; adjutant, John C. Sample; commissary-sergeant, Edward A. Minnich; sergeant-majors, Sylvester A. Weldy and Michael H. Stoner.
Company D. - This company was officered as follows: Captains, Robert B. Ward, discharged November 25, 1864; John S. Nimmon, promoted to captain November 6, 1864, to major May 25, 1865, and James E. Cook, promoted to captain May 26, 1865; first lieutenants, John C. Sample, promoted to adjutant December 1, 1864, and William N. Scott, promoted from first sergeant May 26, 1865; second lieutenants, James H. Aughinbaugh, resigned January 13, 1863, and Sylvester A. Weldy, promoted from sergeant-major November 28, 1864; first sergeants, Jacob M. Miles and John S. Hicks; quartermaster-sergeant, Josiah C. Young; commissary- sergeant, Jeremiah A. Smith; sergeants, Benjamin Wallace, Thomas H. Warren, William S. Askwith, John F. Peiffer, William A. Price, Thomas C. King and Edward A. Minnich; Corporal, George W. Schweitzer, William H. Woodall, John R. Smith, William Henneberger, Franklin Rhodes, E.M. Flickinger, Michael Warrech, George F. Cook, Michael H. Stoner and Joseph S. Hoyer.
In the early part of the service of the Eleventh Cavalry, the regiment was divided, five companies doing picket duty in the neighborhood of Fortress Monroe and the Blackwater, and five companies attached to the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsula campaign. The regiment took part in the battles of Deserted House, Franklin, Suffolk, Petersburg, Stony Creek, Reams Station, Five Forks, and the capture of Richmond - in the latter capturing 110 field pieces, 41 mortars, 6 heavy guns, 120 carriages and caissons, 7 forges and a large quantity of ammunition and other stores. The regiment also took part in a number of raids through Virginia and North Carolina, destroying a vast amount of rebel stores and lines of transportation. Mustered out at Manchester, Va., August 13, 1865.
ONE HUNDRED AND TWELFTH REGIMENT - THREE YEARS112th Regiment
Second Artillery. - In January, 1862, this regiment was organized in Philadelphia, but a large number of the men were recruited in Franklin County. The men being scattered through the various batteries of the regiment, it is impossible to make up a correct record. B. Frank Winger was lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and Joseph W. Winger, captain, and William H. Verdier, second lieutenant, of Battery D. This regiment, being heavy artillery, was stationed in the fortifications around Washington, D.C. In the spring of 1864, the recruits having filled up the ranks to over three thousand men, a new regiment, called the Second Provisional Artillery, was formed, the officers being selected from the officers and enlisted men of the old regiment. Both regiments were ordered to the front and took part in the Wilderness campaign and the capture of Richmond, a portion of the time acting as-infantry. Mustered out at City Point, Va., January 29, 1866.
ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SIXTH REGIMENT - NINE MONTHS126th Regiment
After the close of the Peninsular campaign, in which McClellans fine army was defeated before Richmond and hurled back to the James River, and while Lee's army was concentrating for the overthrow of Pope's Army of Northern Virginia, a feeling of gloom enshrouded the nation. Under this condition, the flower of the country rushed to fill up the depleted ranks of the Union Army. Under these circumstances the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment was recruited in about three weeks, Juniata County furnishing two companies, F and I; Franklin, the remaining eight. The regiment assembled at Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, between August 6 and 10, 1862, and an election of officers held August 13. The following was the list of officers:
Field and Staff Officers (Commissioned). - Colonel, James G. Elder, wounded severely in thigh at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; absent, wounded and with leave from that date until expiration of service. Lieutenant- colonel, David Watson Rowe, in command of the regiment from December 13, 1862; slightly wounded in cheek at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. Major, James C. Austin, honorably discharged upon resignation for disability: Special orders, No. 33, headquarters C.G.D., December 22, 1862. Major, Robert S. Brownson, promoted from captain of Company C, and mustered in as Major, March 31, 1863; adjutant, John Stewart, appointed commissary of musters, Third Division Fifth Corps, April 11, 1863; quartermaster, Thomas J. Nill; surgeon, Washington G. Nugent; assistant surgeon, Frank Grube, appointed assistant surgeon, United States Volunteers, and transferred to Sixth Army Corps, in April, 1863; assistant surgeon, Daniel D. Swift; chaplain, Samuel J. Niccolls, honorably discharged upon resignation, November 23, 1862; chaplain, John Ault, mustered in at Harrisburg, December 2, 1862, joined the regiment December 19, 1862; absent, with leave, from January 18, till February 7, .1863; then absent, sick, without leave till expiration of service.
Non-Commissioned Staff. - Sergeant-Major, George F. Ziegler; quartermaster-sergeant, William M. Allison; commissary-sergeant, Charles W. Kinsler; hospital steward, Bottsf 'd B. Henshey; hospital steward, Lewis Keyser.
Company A, Chambersburg. - Captain, John Doebler, wounded severely in arm at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, necessitating his absence from the company during the remainder of term of service. First lieutenant, John Stewart; appointed adjutant, August 16, 1862. Second lieutenant, George W. Welsh; promoted to first lieutenant, August 16, 1862, vice John Stewart; in command of Company A from -December 13,-1862, till end of service. Second Lieutenant, William McLenegan, from private vice George W. Welsh. First sergeant, John A. Seiders; second sergeant, J. Porter Brown; third sergeant, Rob't Bard Fisher; fourth sergeant, Thomas Durboraw; fifth sergeant, Benjamin F. Deal. Corporal, Thomas G. Pilkington, David F. Hoffman, Dennis Reilly, Samuel McIlroy, Alexander Flack, David Greenawalt, Thomas H. McDowell, Emanuel Forney.
Company B, from Antrim Township and from Fulton County. - Captain, James C. Austin, promoted to major. Captain, William H. Davison, promoted to be captain, August 20, 1862, vice Austin, promoted; February, 1863, appointed inspector-general of brigade, and detached until expiration of service on the staff of Gen. Tyler. First lieutenant, Henry M. Hoke, detailed as division ordnance officer, October 13, 1862. Second Lieutenant, James Pott, from first sergeant, August 20, 1862, vice William H. Davison; severely wounded in the face at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13. 1862. First sergeant, James Pott; promoted to second lieutenant; second sergeant, Harvey Wishert; third sergeant, I.Y. Atherton; fourth sergeant, John Brown Lesher; fifth sergeant, Joseph Myers. Corporal, John L.P. Deitrich, Silas D. Anderson, William H. Weyant, Jacob H. Swisher, William Orth.
Company C, Mercersburg and Vicinity. - Captain, Robert S. Brownson, appointed major, by Gov. Curtin, March 16, 1863; mustered in as such, March 31, 1863. Captain, James P. McCullough, from first lieutenant, March 19, 1863, vice B.S. Brownson. First lieutenant, Samuel Hornbaker, dismissed from the service of the United States, January 16, 1863, under General Orders No. 4, Third Division, Fifth Corps, and General Orders No. 13, headquarters Army of the Potomac, February 18, 1863. Second lieutenant, Jacob S. Trout. First sergeant, James P. McCullough, promoted February 9, 1863, to first lieutenant, vice Hornbaker; second sergeant, David Carson; third sergeant, Oliver H. Anderson; fourth sergeant, William W. Brinkley; fifth sergeant, Thomas D. Metcalf. Corporal, Jacob B. Myers, John K. Shatzer, David L. Coyle, David F. McDonald, Peter McC. Cook, John Findlay Smith, David B. Wolff, William H. McClelland
Company D, Chambersburg. - Captain, John H. Reed, honorably discharged upon resignation, in January, 1863. Captain, Josiah C. Hullinger, from second lieutenant, in February, 1863, vice John H. Reed, resigned. First lieutenant, Jeremiah Cook, discharged from service January 16, 1863; (Dismissal revoked.) first lieutenant, George F. Platt, vice Jere. Cook, February 24, 1863, acting adjutant at battle of Chancellorsville. Second lieutenant, Clay McCauley, vice Josiah C. Hullinger, promoted to captain; captured at Chancellorsville. First sergeant, George F. Platt, promoted to first lieutenant, vice Jere. Cook, February 24, 1863; second sergeant, John McCurdy; third sergeant, Clay McCauley, promoted to second lieutenant, vice J.C. Hullinger, February 24, 1863; fourth sergeant, John M.P. Snider; fifth sergeant, Alex' r L.C. Dingwall. Corporal: William A. Mountz, Lewis Monath, Charles W. Kinsler, Bottsford B. Henshey, William B. Cook, Henry B. Kindig, Joseph W. Seibert.
Company B, Waynesboro. - Captain, W.W. Walker. First-lieutenant, George W. Walker. Second lieutenant, Thomas J. Nill, promoted to quartermaster of regiment; second lieutenant, Henry H. Breneman, promoted to second lieutenant, November 18, 1862, from second sergeant. First sergeant, Frederick Berkel; second sergeant, Henry. H. Breneman, promoted to second lieutenant, November 18, 1862; third sergeant, John A. White; fourth sergeant, Benjamin S. Gaff; fifth sergeant, George M.D. Brotherton. Corporal: Samuel J. Lidy, James B. French, John C. Tracy, George L. Freet, Jacob F. Newman, Luther B. Walter, John C. Anderson, Augustus C. Manahan.
Company G, Chambersburg. - Captain, George L. Miles. First lieutenant, Stephen C. McCurdy. Second lieutenant, Harry C. Fortescue, killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; second lieutenant, Benjamin F. Zook, vice Fortescue, killed; promoted from first-sergeant, February 9, 1863. First sergeant, Benjamin F. Zook; second sergeant, John H. Harmony, third sergeant, Anthony K. McCurdy; fourth sergeant, John C. Flickinger; fifth sergeant, John Liggett. Corporal: John Kasy, Jr., S.O. Brown McCurdy, Thomas Lindsay, Edward Monath, Peter Dorty, Amos A. Skinner, Richard Waters, William T. Smith.
Company H, Path Valley and St. Thomas. - Captain, James G. Elder, promoted to colonel of regiment. Captain, John H. Walker, from first lieutenant, August 15, 1862; wounded severely in battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; slightly wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. First lieutenant, William H. Mackey, promoted August 26, 1862, from orderly sergeant, wounded severely in battle at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; second lieutenant, Josiah W. Fletcher, wounded severely in battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, captured at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. First sergeant, William H. Mackey; second sergeant, Jacob Snider; third sergeant, Alfred J. Kent; fourth sergeant, Stephen W. Pomeroy; fifth sergeant, Andrew Burgess. Corporal, Calvin I. Gamble, Benjamin Dawney, Samuel W. Beam, McGinley J. Wilhelm, Jas. B. Worthington, Samuel W. Croft.
Company K, Greencastle. - Captain, David Watson Rowe, elected major, August 9, 1862; promoted to lieutenant-colonel, August 15, 1862. Captain, Andrew B. Davison, promoted from first lieutenant, August 9, 1862; acting major of regiment at the battle of Chancellorsville. First lieutenant, John Gilmore Rowe, promoted from orderly sergeant, August 9, 1862; wounded severely in forehead at battle of Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, whilst in command of his company. Second lieutenant, John W.P. Reid. First sergeant, John Gilmore Rowe; second sergeant, John H. Logue; third sergeant, William Snyder; fourth sergeant, Simon W. Rupley; fifth sergeant, Henry Strickler. Corporal, Emanuel Hawbecker; William C. Byers; Scott K. Snively; Thomas Daly; John M.D. Deitrich.
This regiment, which embraced in its ranks men who then and since have been recognized as prominent citizens of the county, was attached to Tyler's brigade, Third Division, Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac, and participated in the destructive battles of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, and Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. In both these engagements it lost severely in killed and wounded. On the 20th of May, the regiment was mustered out of service at Harrisburg.
ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT - NINE MONTHS158th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Chambersburg, Penn., in November, 1862, five companies being from Franklin County, and the remainder from Cumberland and Fulton. The field and staff officers from Franklin County were Colonel, David B. McKibben; lieutenant-colonel, Elias S. Troxell; chaplain, Rev. Daniel Hartman; sergeant-major, John L. Ritchey.
Company, B. - Captain, Elias K. Lehman; first lieutenant, Michael D. Miller; second lieutenant, Adam Franklin; first sergeant, Sabright Gelwicks; sergeants, John G. Ritter, John R. Hamilton, William Shearer, William C. Leedy and Amos R. Keggerreis; Corporal, George Robinson, Alex. W. Gaston, John I. Culbertson, Solomon Gabler, Daniel Deatrick, Frederick Rife, Daniel Fraker, William Reifsnider, John W. Campbell and John Funk.
Company D. - Captain, Archibald R. Rhea; first lieutenant, Jacob S. Snively; second lieutenant, John Hassler; first sergeant, Thomas Clinging; sergeants, Robert Anderson, Henry Lenher, Jacob Walk, David H. Black; Corporal, William W. Auld, John H. Hornbaker, Jacob Fry, Henry Posser, Lewis Clark, Jacob Shatzer, John H. Frederick, Oliver Knode, Daniel A. Miller, Peter Snider, Thomas Donaldson and Frederick Baker.
Company E. - Captains, Elias S. Troxell, promoted to lieutenant-colonel; William T. Barnitz; first lieutenant, William S. Maxwell; second lieutenant, S.M. Hoeflich; first sergeant, James R. McCurdy; sergeants, Samuel Branthaver, Peter Heefner, Levi Kuhnley, Henry Funk; Corporal, Emanuel Byers, William Reed, Joseph Woolard, John B. Hoeflich, Richard Ridgley, Emory Hauser, David Wingert, Jacob Horsch, Joseph Freeland, Henry McGinity, and Casper Wickey.
Company G. - Captains, Michael W. Triar, resigned; Joseph Rock, promoted from first lieutenant; first lieutenant, William Stover; second lieutenant, Jacob A. Stover; first sergeant, Franklin Renniker; sergeants, Samuel D. Shank, Jacob Bricker, Daniel Cole, Thomas Duffy, William F. Orndorff, Melchor Speelman; Corporal, Richard B. Carson, George Lackens, Thomas R. Gilland, John F. Smith, Joseph F. Sarter, George Keagey, Philip C. Garman and Jacob Bryson.
Company I. - Captain, William E. McDowell; first lieutenant, John Beaver; second lieutenant, John W.Jones; first sergeant, Jacob Stratiff; sergeants, Joseph Martin, Philip H. Snyder, Noah Kuhn, James Williams; Corporal, Jacob Leedy, Harrison Fohl, Peter Brubaker, Pott Philips, John H. DeUnger, Jacob C. Hewett, John H. Campbell, Samuel E. Smith and J.P. Feltenberger.
The time of service of this regiment was spent principally in doing guard duty in North Carolina, and took an active part in relieving the garrison at Washington, in that State, when surrounded by the rebels. Being transferred to Gen. Deig's command at Fortress Monroe, it took part in an expedition against Richmond via White House Landing, Bottomless Bridge. The purpose of the expedition being accomplished, it was transferred to Harpers Ferry, and followed up Gen. Lee on his retreat from Gettysburg; mustered out of service at Chambersburg, Penn., August 12, 1863.
ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIRST REGIMENT, SIXTEENTH CAVALRY - THREE YEARS161st Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., November 18, 1862, with Col. John Irving Gregg as colonel. Company H was from Franklin County, and had in it 203 officers and men. The field and staff officers from the county were major, Adam J. Snyder; adjutant, Samuel E. Cormany.
Company H. - Captains, William H. Sullenberger, discharged May 10, 1863; Adam J. Snyder, promoted from first lieutenant, March 12, 1863, to major, May 23, 1865; Solomon B. Barnes, promoted to first lieutenant May 1, 1863, to captain, May 23, 1865. First lieutenant, Samuel B. Peter; second lieutenants, Valentine H. Bohn, discharged March 23, 1863; John S. Armstrong, promoted from first sergeant April 1, 1863; discharged May 25, 1863; Samuel E. Cormany, promoted to adjutant December 11, 1864, and Brewer D. Polley; first sergeant, David W. Newman; quartermaster-sergeant, George W. Earich; commissary-sergeants, Noah Sier, Samuel McGowan; sergeants, Edgar D. Washabaugh, Henry M. Ulery, Abel B. Moore; John Mack, Jacob Stump, John F. Metz, Jerome C. Coble, Jacob B. Fetterhoff, John Woodall, Henry McElroy, Henry S. Bohn, Henry A. Flanagan and George W. Harrison. Corporal, John H. Tilley, Addison P. Todd, James A. Curry, Lewis C. Hoffman, Thomas Dymond, Thomas Hart, John M. Ulery, S.H. McNaughton, Joseph C. Taylor, John Hassen, Thomas Welling, James W. McCurdy, T. Werdebaugh, John D. Reasner, Jacob Bluttenberger, Jacob Fink, John Lawrence, James K.P. Cline, Andrew Hitterling and Samuel A. Rorebaugh.
This regiment represented nearly every section of this broad commonwealth, and was attached to the Army of the Potomac. It participated in the battle of Brandy Station, in a number of engagements on the march of the army from Virginia to Gettysburg, and in the battle at the latter place; at Auburn, Catlett's, Bristoe Station, Trevilian Station, Malvern Hill, Deep Run, Boydton Plank Road, Stony Creek Station, Hatchers Run, Five Forks, and from this time until the fall of Richmond, the marching and fighting of the Sixteenth were almost incessant. It also took part in a number of raids into the enemy's countryfor the purpose, of destroying railroads and other government property; mustered out at Richmond, Va., August 7,1865.
ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SECOND REGIMENT, SEVENTEENTH CAVALRY - THREE YEARS162nd Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., October 18, 1862, with. Josiah H. Kellogg, as colonel. Company G, 147 officers and men, was from Franklin County. Maj. Luther B. Kurtz was the only representative of the county on the regimental staff.
Company G. - Captains, Luther B. Kurtz, promoted to major February 13, 1865; Daniel Snively, promoted from first lieutenant, March 10, 1865. First lieutenant, Henry G. Bonebrake, promoted to first lieutenant May 28, 1865; second lieutenants: William R. Kreps, resigned February 6, 1864; Jacob Potter, promoted to second lieutenant May 28, 1865. First sergeants, John J. Robinson, James D. Fitz; quartermaster-sergeant, George F. Foreman; commissary- sergeants, Peter Pass, Daniel Gehr; sergeants, Henry Berger, Abraham Shockey, William Sheldon, David Royer, John J. Andrews, John Shockey; Corporal, William Cooper, Samuel Phraner, Joseph Flory, John Strambaugh, James W. Kipe, Francis L. Tracy, John Lore, Joseph Keepers, John Nicodemus, William Simmons.
The Seventeenth was attached to the Army of the Potomac, and was actively engaged in Virginia in scouting and skirmishing till the battle of Chancellorsville, when it was one of the three cavalry regiments selected to accompany Gen. Hooker in that campaign, and took a prominent part. This regiment was in the advance of the march to Gettysburg, and was hailed with demonstrations of rejoicing through Maryland and Pennsylvania, and took part in the first days fight on the Cashtown Road. Following the retreating foe into Virginia, it was almost constantly engaged in raids and skirmishes until August, 1864, when it was ordered to the command of Gen. Sheridan, in the Shenandoah Valley, where it took part in the battles at Newtown, Front Royal, Smithfield, White Post, Berryville, Pike, and a portion of the regiment was the escort of Gen. Sheridan on his famous ride to the front. This regiment was with Gen. Sheridan in his raid on the James River Canal, in February, 1865, and in the advance that resulted in the fall of Richmond, the cavalry being almost constantly engaged from the 1st till the 9th of April; mustered out at Washington, D.C., June 16, 1865.
ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIFTH REGIMENT - NINE MONTHS165th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Gettysburg, Penn., December 6, 1862, under Col. Charles H. Buehler. Company A, 101 officers and men from Franklin County.
Company A. - Captain, Charles A. Funk First lieutenants: George Glass, died at Suffolk, Va.; Newton W. Homer, resigned May 15, 1863; Martin B. Wingert, Second lieutenants: Frank D. Ditzler, discharged May 27, 1863, Abram S. Oyer; first sergeant, Samuel Bitter; sergeants, John McAllister, Daniel Miller, Isaac White and William Foster. Corporal, James Taylor, Solomon Oyer, Thomas Smith, Adam Spidal, William Reath, Elias Kohler, William Poole and Robert Myers.
The term of service of this regiment was spent in and around Suffolk and Norfolk, Va., in doing guard duty and repulsing the raids of the Rebel Army in that direction. It helped to guard the working party in the destruction of the Weldon and Petersburg Railroads, and was with the unsuccessful demonstration against Richmond, in June, 1863, and mustered out of service July 28, 1863.
ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-SECOND REGIMENT, TWENTY-FIRST CAVALRY - SIX MONTHS182nd Regiment
This regiment was organized at Chambersburg, Penn., in August, 1863, with William H. Boyd as colonel. Although the commanding officer was not a citizen of Franklin County, he was well and favorably known, having previously commanded the Lincoln cavalry, which had attained distinction in the Cumberland Valley in skirmishing with advance of Lee's army in the Gettysburg campaign. Companies D, H, I, K and L, were from Franklin County.
Company D. - One hundred and five officers and men. Captain, Josiah C. Hollinger; first lieutenant, Henry B. Kendig; second lieutenant, James C. Patton; first sergeant, Daniel B. Greenawalt; quartermaster-sergeant, Hugh F. Gordon; commissary-sergeant, Alex. L.C. Dingwall; sergeants, Samuel Z. Maxwell, David Chamberlin, David L. Pisle, James T. Buchanan, Joshua K. Hood, and Richard Winters. Corporal, Frederick M. Eyster, William H. Haughtlin, Jacob S. Banker, John H. Rhodes, David Hissong, David R. Gordon, William H. Toms and William H. Kendig.
Company H. - Ninety-two officers and men. Captain, Samuel Walker; first lieutenant, William P. Skinner; second lieutenant, B. Gracy Ferguson; first sergeant, John T. Myers; quartermaster-sergeant, George M. Gowan; commissary- sergeant, Jacob Pott; sergeants, William, B. Noble, Jeremiah Martin, Reynold M. Barclay, John I. Neil, John Middlekauff and George W. Mosser; Corporal, John M. Linn, Richard A. Campbell, Michael Dunkle, George H. Myers, Michael Keggeweis, S.L. Houghowont, Franklin Gamble, John A. Heckman, Adam Sharp, William H. Miller and William H.H. Wilson.
Company I. - One hundred officers and men. Captains, Christian B. Pisle, resigned October 12, 1863, and Arthur Bennett, promoted November 14, 1863; first lieutenant, William F. Peiffer, promoted November 14, 1863; first sergeant, George W. Daily; quartermaster-sergeant, Samuel S. Walch; commissary-sergeant, James B. Anderson; sergeants, Jacob Shaffer, Lewis H. Sprecher, James Cosgrove, George W. Wilson, George U. Bowman and Solomon Coy; Corporal, Peter Rossman, James B. Miller, Josiah Mentzer, John Hughes, John G. Ocker, Emanuel T. Reed, William M. Claudy and John R. Sloan.
Company K. - Eighty-three officers and men. Captain, Robert J. Boyd; first lieutenant, Henry C. Phenicie; second lieutenant, Louis H. Henkell; first sergeant, George W. Kennedy; quartermaster-sergeant, Levi J. Grawl; commissary- sergeant, Daniel Bitner; sergeants, John Palmer, Archibald Rymer, Samuel Palmer, John W. Kuhn, Philip L. Gardner and J. Wilson Hooser; Corporal, George W. Lewis, Jacob Kuh, David Criswell, J. Dallas Frye, Henry Bartle, James L. Weagley, J.A. Bowles and John Thompson.
Company L. - One hundred and two officers and men. Captain, George L. Miles; first lieutenant, Thomas D. French; second lieutenant, John H. Harmony; first sergeant, Wilson H. Reilly; quartermaster-sergeant, John D. McClintock; sergeants, Archibald S. McCulloch, John T. Pfoutz, John King, Edward Monath, Fred W. Shinefield and William E. Seiser; Corporal, George Jackson, William H. Dall, Daniel V. Umholtz, George N. Biddinger, Amos J. Sellers, John F. Harmony, Harry Hallett and William Johnson.
In February, 1864, the regiment was reorganized for a three years service under the former field and staff officers, with Companies D, E, K and L from Franklin County, Henry B. Kendig and William H. Pfoutz serving as; sergeant- majors, William B. Cook as quartermaster-sergeant, and Theodore F. Colby as saddler.
Company D. - Sixty-eight officers and men. Captains, Josiah C. Hollinger, discharged March 27, 1865, and James C. Patton, promoted from first lieutenant; first lieutenant, David L. Pisle, promoted from second lieutenant; first- sergeant, David Chamberlin; quartermaster-sergeant, Jacob West; commissary- sergeant, David Shoop; sergeants, James T. Buchanan, William F. McClellan, David Stouffer, McFarland Campbell and J. Findlay Smith; Corporal, Willjam H. Kendig, William Marknard, Henry F. Shanee, Franklin Lightner, S.W. Pilkington, John M. Forney, Elias S. Flory and Solomon Bittner.
Company E. - One hundred and thirty-seven officers and men. Captain, William H. Boyd; first lieutenant, Martin V.B. Coho; second lieutenant, Richard Walters, killed at Bethesda Church, Va., June 2, 1864; second lieutenant, Henry B. Kendig, promoted June 24, 1864; first sergeants, Edward W. Beecher; Charles E. Pettis; quartermaster sergeant, George Roth; commissary-sergeant, Thomas A. Blanchard; sergeants, Peter Fetig, Silas Harr, Henry C. Edmiston, William Lochbaum, and William T. Allison; Corporal, Samuel Howard, Joseph Shank, George Goosley, William C. Eshelman, Michael Leibold, Daniel Weidler William Small, M.V. McClintock and Edward A. Mitchell.
Company K. - One hundred and thirty-nine officers and men, was officered as follows: Captain, Henry C. Phenicie; first lieutenant, Louis H. Henkell; second lieutenant, George W. Kennedy; first sergeant, Samuel Palmer; quartermaster-sergeant, Levi J. Grawl; commissary-sergeant, John W. Kuhn; sergeants, Franklin Gamble, John A. Heckman, J.A. Bowles, John N. Frye, Jacob H. Bushey, John H. Middlekauf, Peter Swischer and Philip L. Gardner; Corporal, John P. Study, Adam Sharp, Henry Bartle, Simon Palmer, John McCormick, William McElder, Robert Crunkleton and William H. Pensinger.
Company L. - One hundred and thirty-three officers and men, was officered as follows: Captain, John H. Harmony; first lieutenants, Wilson H. Reilly (discharged September 12, 1864); John T. Pfoutz (discharged May 15, 1865); second lieutenant, Fred W. Shinefield; first sergeant, George W. Harmony; quartermaster-sergeant, Hiram Shoeman; commissary-sergeant, Peter S. Hepper; sergeants, William F. Leisse, Philip A. Welsh, Amos J. Sellers, Isaac B.. Rupp, John King; Corporal, David B. Hager, Levi Stepler, John W. Riffle, William H. Miller, James O'Brien, William H.H. Wilson, Joseph Creglow, Henry S. Weaver, Robert Cowels and Freman Scott.
After the organization of this regiment, Companies C, E, K, H, L and M were sent for duty to Pottsville and Scranton, Penn., and Company B to Gettysburg. Penn. The remaining five companies, under command of Col. Boyd, proceeded to Harper's Ferry, Va., and were engaged in arduous duty in the 'department of the Shenandoah. In February, 1864, the regiment was reorganized, and, shortly after, Company D was ordered to Scranton, Penn., where it remained over a year. In May the regiment was ordered to Washington, D.C., where it was dismounted and equipped as infantry, and sent to the Army of the Potomac. It took part in the engagement at Cold Harbor, in front of Petersburg, the destruction of the Weldon Railroad, Poplar Spring Church. In October the Twenty-first was again equipped and mounted as cavalry and ordered to Gen. Gregg's division, after which it took part in the engagements at the Boydtown plank road, and helped to destroy rebel stores at Stony Creek Station; was on the Bellefield raid, and saw hard service around Petersburg and Richmond. Of the line officers, four were killed in battle or mortally wounded, and fourteen were wounded only. Of the enlisted men, 147 were killed in battle and 253 were wounded. It was mustered out of service at Lynchburg, Va., July 8, 1865.
ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FIFTH REGIMENT, TWENTY-SECOND CAVALRY - NINE MONTHS185th Regiment
A battalion of this regiment was reorganized at Chambersburg, in February, 1864, and a number of Franklin County boys joined the organization but were so scattered through the regiment that it is impossible to give their names. Elias S. Troxell was major of the regiment, and Thomas D. French, captain of Company L. A portion of the regiment was employed in guarding the fords of the Susquehanna and on picket duty in the Cumberland Valley. After its reorganization, it did effective service in the Shenandoah Valley, and was with Gen. Averill when he passed through Chambersburg on the day of the burning of the town, in pursuit of Gen. McCausland, catching up with him at Moorefield, Va., when the rebel general was put to rout, losing many men and all his guns. It was mustered out of service October 31, 1865.
TWO HUNDRED-AND FIRST REGIMENT - ONE YEAR201st Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., August 29, 1864, with F. Asbury Awl as colonel. Part of Company K, Captain, Alexander C. Landis, was from Franklin County. With the exception of a short term of service along the Manassas Gap Railroad, in Virginia, the regiment was on provost duty in Pennsylvania and at Fort Delaware. Mustered out of service at Harrisburg. Penn., June 21, 1865.
TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTH REGIMENT - ONE YEAR205th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., September 2, 1864, with Joseph A. Matthews as colonel. Part of Company G was recruited in Franklin County, of which Robert A. Sharp was first lieutenant, and Daniel. Duck, sergeant. After being with the Army of the James a short time it was transferred to the Army of the Potomac and was attached to Gen. Hartranft's brigade, and took part in the capture of Petersburg. Mustered out of service at Alexandria, Va., June 2, 1865.
TWO HUNDRED AND SEVENTH REGIMENT - ONE YEAR207th Regiment
At Harrisburg, Penn., September 8, 1864, this regiment was organized with Robert C. Cox as colonel. Part of Company F was from Franklin County, David L. Powders being first lieutenant; David E. Kindig, first sergeant, and Cyrus Hazelet, one of the Corporal. It was first attached to the Army of the James, and then to the Army of the Potomac, and took part in the operations at Hatchers Run, Fort Steadman and Fort Sedgwick. Mustered out of service at Alexandria, Va., May 13, 1865.
TWO HUNDRED AND NINTH REGIMENT - ONE YEAR209th Regiment
This regiment was organized at Harrisburg, Penn., September 16, 1864, with Tobias B. Kauffman as colonel. Franklin County was represented on the regimental staff by Maj. John L. Ritchey and Adjt. Andrew R. Davison, and by Company D. This company's organization during its term of service was as follows:
Company D. - Captains, John L. Ritchey, promoted to major September 17, 1864, and James P. McCullough; first lieutenant, Noah W. Kuhn; second- lieutenant, B. Frank Deal; first sergeants, George J.Deitrick and Jacob F. Reamer; sergeants, Jonathan Palmer, Thomas J. Daffy, Robert Bard and Emanuel T. Reed; Corporal, Joseph R. Fulton, Joseph Lackman, John D. Fisher, George Riddle, Jeremiah Reifsnider, Joseph Elder, James Hissong, Andrew J. Gift, Jacob W. Pool and Jacob Finefrock.
Immediately after its organization the regiment moved to the front and joined the Army of the James and took part in the engagement at Chapin's farm, after which it was transferred to the Army of the Potomac, and took part in the engagements around Petersburg, Va., where Maj. Ritchey was badly wounded and Captain McCullough mortally so, dying on the following day. Mustered out of service May 31, 1865.
INDEPENDENT BATTERY B
This Battery was an independent organization, a large part of which was recruited in Franklin County for the Seventy-seventh Regiment by Captain Peter B. Housam, and, on his promotion to the lieutenant-colonelcy of that regiment, the men were transferred to Captain Mueller, and mustered into service November 6, 1861. The following are at least some of the officers from Franklin County: Captains - AlansonJ. Stevens, promoted from first lieutenant January 5, 1863, killed at Chickamauga, Ga., September 21, 1863; Samuel M. McDowell, promoted from first lieutenant January 11, 1864, killed at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864. Second lieutenant, Clarence M. Camp, promoted to quartermaster-sergeant August 16, 1864. Sergeants, Robert Dunkinson, Samuel K. Snively, Philip C. Smith, William Biggs, Franklin Yeager. Battery B was attached to the Army of the Cumberland and did effective service, being engaged in the battles at Murfreesboro (of five days' duration) and Chickamauga. In the spring of 1864 the battery was with Sherman on his Atlanta campaign, during which the fighting was almost incessant. In the bold and bloody assault on the enemy's lines at Kenesaw Mountain, Captain Samuel M. McDowell was killed. After the surrender of the rebel armies the battery was sent to Texas, where it remained on duty until the 12th of October, when it was mustered out of service at Victoria.
THE MILITIA OF 1862
After the defeat of the Union Army at the second battle of Bull Run, August 29 and 30, 1862, the Rebel Army hastened northward and crossed the Potomac, threatening the southern border of Pennsylvania, and on the 4th of September Gov. Curtin issued a proclamation calling on the people to arm and prepare for defense. Gen. John F. Reynolds assumed command of the militia, 15,000 being concentrated at Hagerstown and Boonsboro; 10,000 at Greencastle and Chambersburg, and 25,000 at Harrisburg, and on their way to that city. The enemy having been defeated at Antietam and the emergency passed, the militia was mustered out at Harrisburg on the 24th of September. The following is a list of the companies raised in Franklin County:
Captain, J. Wyeth Douglas; first lieutenant, Justinian McGuigan; second lieutenant, George Ludwig, Jr.; 85 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 1, and discharged September 16, 1862.
Captain, John Jeffries; first lieutenant, J. McD. Sharpe; second lieutenant, Jacob S. Brand; 94 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 5, and discharged September 27, 1862.
Captain, James H. Montgomery; first lieutenant, John Hassler; second lieutenant, John R. Tankenley; 89 officers and men. Organized at St. Thomas, September 8, and discharged September 20, 1862.
Captain, George W. Eyster; first lieutenant, David Wallace; second lieutenant, Martin Shoemaker; 62 officers and men. Organized at Greenvillage September 12, and discharged October 1, 1862.
Captain, John D. Walker; first lieutenant, Carl Galliher; second lieutenant John Witherow; 65 officers and men. Organized at Fannettsburg September 11, and discharged September 27, 1862.
Captain, K. Shannon Taylor; first lieutenant, Jacob Sellers; second lieutenant, John K. Reese; 77 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 9, and discharged September 25, 1862.
Captain, David Houser; first lieutenant, Franklin Snider; second lieutenant, William Mong; 77 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 15, and discharged October 1, 1862.
Captain, Thomas L. Fletcher; first lieutenant, John P. Keefer; second lieutenant, James Kennedy; 84 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 14, and discharged October 1, 1862.
Captain, Charles W. Eyster; first lieutenant, Peter Ackerman; second lieutenant, Ephraim Finefrock; 118 officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 14, and discharged October 15, 1862.
Captain, David Vance; first lieutenant, John Beaver; second lieutenant, Thomas J. Doyle; 88 officers and men. Organized at Fort Loudon September 18, and discharged October 11, 1862.
Captain Andrew M. Criswell; first lieutenant, John Dissinger; second lieutenant, Obed Mentzer; 52 officers and men. Organized at Scotland September 15, and discharged October 1, 1862.
Captain, Christian C. Foltz; first lieutenant, Samuel F. Greenawalt; second lieutenant, P. Henry Peiffer. This was a cavalry company, with forty-seven officers and men. Organized at Chambersburg September 11, and discharged September 25, 1862.
Colored Troops. - There was no distinct organization of colored troops formed in Franklin County, but probably 500 of our colored citizens entered the army during the Rebellion. Eleven regiments of colored soldiers were recruited in Pennsylvania by the United States Government, and the State of Massachusetts had recruiting officers here frequently.
Officers from Franklin County. - Major-general - Samuel W. Crawford, appointed April 28, 1862. Paymaster - Maj. John M. Pomeroy, appointed June 14, 1861. Assistant adjutant-general - Captain Theodore McGowan, appointed July 14, 1862. Commissaries of subsistence - Captain Elishu P. Reid, appointed September 10, 1862; Captain Calvin Gilbert, appointed March 2, 1864. Signal Corps - Second lieutenant Michael P. Reymer, appointed March 3, 1863. Surgeons - Samuel. G. Lane, Fifth Reserves, appointed September 6, 1861; William C. Lane, One Hundred and Twenty- second Regiment, appointed September 15, 1862. Hospital Chaplain - Rev. J. Agnew Crawford, appointed August 8, 1863. Colonels - George B. Wiestling, One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Regiment, appointed November 28, 1862; Charles T. Campbell, Fifty-seventh Regiment, appointed March 4, 1862. Captain - Michael W. Houser, Company C, Fifty-seventh Regiment, appointed November 25, 1865. Second Lieutenant - Allison McDowell, Company B, Sixteenth Cavalry, appointed October 3, 1863.
The roster of troops furnished by Franklin County for the war has taken a large part of our space hitherto. It is impossible, of course, to give the names of all soldiers, who placed their sacrifices on their country's altar. Such information can be had from Bates' history, from which our lists have been taken.
Raids into its territory were, quite frequent. Every movement of troops along the border had its effect to produce a panic along the valley. A disaster to the Union troops in Maryland or Virginia. was succeeded by a stampede of negroes, women and children which swept along the whole valley, producing a constant unrest. The uncertainty connected with these vibratory movements of refugees had a deleterious effect upon every kind of business, to say nothing of the uneasiness .it created. The migration of friend or foe involved loss to the inhabitants of the county. It is with difficulty, therefore, that people living in other parts of the country realize the magnitude of the sacrifices made by the people of Franklin County during the civil war. With her brave sons in nearly every regiment in the field, and her home guards to watch the border, and with her flocks and crops pillaged by both armies, her sacrifices for the Union were greater than those of probably any county in the Northern States. Her sacrifices, however, but purified and intensified her loyalty to the Government for which her early pioneers had fought.
Stuart's Raid in 1862After the battle of Antietam, Gen. Lee was desirous of escaping from the menacing position of McClellan's army. To aid in this matter, he detached that distinguished and dashing cavalry officer, Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, to make a bold raid to the rear of the Union Army. The time selected was favorable. In consequence of the defeat of Lee's army at South Mountain and Antietam, Union troops in the Cumberland Valley were largely withdrawn, a feeling of security having settled upon the people.
With a command estimated at from 1,800 to 2,800 men, well officered and picked, Stuart crossed the Potomac above Williamsport at Cherry Run Ford, and passing rapidly through Maryland came down from the mountains upon Mercersburg without warning, but with all the consternation attending such rapid movements. Thomas Whitehead, captain of Company E, Second Virginia Cavalry, in a letter published in the Philadelphia Times, says: "The inhabitants of Mercersburg seemed terror stricken and paralyzed, and many ludicrous accounts were given by the soldiers of their efforts to quiet their fears. I witnessed one: Private J.C. Pettit, of Company E, with a comrade, rode under the window of a house and proposed to buy some food of an old woman and her daughter. With pallid face bathed in tears the old lady said:' take anything, only spare the women and children.'" Maj. H.B. McClellan, Stuart's adjutant-general, relates another incident that occurred between Mercersburg and Chambersburg. The soldiers belonged to the Ninth Virginia Cavalry, and the incident is said to have happened at a Mr. Glee's, not far from Bridgeport:
"The terms of Stuarts orders were strictly enforced during the whole march. Nothing whatever was disturbed on the soil of Maryland, but when once the Pennsylvanialine was crossed, the seizure of horses was prosecuted with system and diligence. Six hundred men scoured the country on either side of the line of march, and as far as scouts could, extend, the country was denuded of horses. With his usual courtesy toward ladies, Stuart gave orders that whenever they might meet his column, they should be allowed to pass in their conveyances without molestation. So strict was the enforcement of orders that the men were not even allowed to seize provisions for themselves. They sometimes, however, obtained by stratagem what they were not permitted to take by force. On the second day's march, some hungry cavalrymen approached a house whose male defenders had fled, leaving the women and babies in possession. A polite request for food was met by the somewhat surly reply that there was none in the house. Casting a wolfish glance upon the babies, a lean fellow remarked that he had never been in the habit of eating human flesh, but that he was now hungry enough for anything; and if he could get nothing else, he believed he would compromise on one of the babies. It is hardly necessary to say that the mothers heart relented, and a bountiful repast was soon provided."
Through Bridgeport and St. Thomas the cavalry dashed, gathering in horses from both sides of the pike, and finally reached Chambersburg. Say s Captain Whitehead: "The mayor, Col. McClure and Judge Kimmell appeared, met Stuart and Hampton, surrendered the town and asked for the protection of persons and the private property of citizens. These terms were granted, with an exception as to horses, and a safe conduct was given the three gentlemen, who made the terms of surrender. A considerable supply of clothing, ammunition and other stores was found and distributed, and a number of horses were taken. One of the most noticeable things all along the route was the dazed appearance of the citizens; they seemed paralyzed, astonished and unable to comprehend the situation.
"The Second Virginia was ordered to go down and destroy an important bridge, but before we reached it we were informed that it was iron; our axes would not cut it and it would not burn, and, as we did not have the time nor the material to blow it up, we retraced our steps. When we, returned from the bridge expedition we were halted in a wide street, which led into the turnpike, and told to remain until further orders, lieutenant-Col. Watts being left in charge of the brigade detachment. There was a drizzling rain sufficient to make it disagreeably cold, and piles of posts, that were along the street, and palings were soon turned into little fires for the squads; what were known as the 'Pirouters' were soon out in search for something to eat.
"Near the Second Regiments position there was a nice cottage and further up the street a fine residence. Corporal Tip Tinsley, of Company E, was early at the cottage, his sabre-scabbard and spurs clanking on the porch floor. He knocked and an old man came to the door, lantern in hand Tinsley asked if he could get some bread. 'Certainly, a soldier can.' The old gentleman disappeared and quickly returned with an immense sheet of rolls under his arm and his lantern in the other hand As Tinsley received the bread he said: 'Who is your general - McClellan or Burnside?' 'Stonewall Jackson,' replied Tinsley. 'Good God!' exclaimed the old man. The lantern fell, the door slammed and the corporal came off with the bread.
"The night spent in Chambersburg was full of interest. Owing to the favorable terms made by Judge Kimmell and his associates, Col. McClure and Thomas B. Kennedy, the rebels did comparatively little damage in town to persons or private property. Some of the officers paid a friendly visit to Col. McClure at his residence, and discussed political questions with him. Gen. Stuart and other officers lodged for the night at the Franklin Hotel, and proved very affable and entertaining. On the following morning, Saturday, the raiders took their departure eastward across the South Mountain. Before leaving, a guard was detached to burn the depot house, the machine shops, and the warehouse of Messrs. Wunderlich & Nead. The latter was burnt because it contained the ammunition taken from Gen. Longstreet. In this warehouse and in some cars upon the siding was a considerable amount of government stores, consisting of clothing, hats, boots, pistols, etc. As much of these as the guard could carry were taken with them. Some soldiers had on as many as three hats. After the guard departed, some of our citizens endeavored to save the "burning buildings and adjoining property, but they were much annoyed by the exploding shells. These did not go off at once, as some feared, but gradually, as the fire reached them. Fearing for the safety of the sick and wounded in the lower end of the town, in case the whole of the ammunition in the burning warehouse would explode at once, many of the ladies who bad been ministering to their necessities went to their assistance, and at the usual hour at noon these good Samaritans had dinner prepared for these men. We swept on southeast, passing through a long string of a town called Fayetteville, at which there was a large female school, and while getting some provisions our men entered into a political discussion with the lady teacher in charge, who appeared disposed to try and convert my commands. She was good looking and intelligent, and was especially persistent and aggressive on the slavery question. A very dogmatic and impertinent man of my company asked her if she regarded a negro her equal, and would she be willing to marry one. She very calmly replied that it would be greatly preferable to marrying him. His comrades never let him hear the last of that Pennsylvania 'school marm' or that imaginary negro. By the way, we saw only one negro on this trip through Pennsylvania, and he was the raggedest specimen we ever saw. He was standing on a high bank looking at the column as it passed, and the boys called to him to know if he did not want to go down in Dixie, promising him new clothes and good wages. His only reply was that he couldn't leave his mammy. Near this solitary negro we saw the only loose hog encountered on the trip. The command rode over him, and he came near being the cause of the only casualty we would have sustained by tripping a troopers horse and overthrowing his rider."
Crossing South Mountain and avoiding all towns where Federal soldiers might be assembled, Stuarts cavalry returned again to Virginia, having made a complete circuit of the Union Army, captured and led out 1,200 head of Pennsylvania horses, and taken as captives some of Franklin County's best citizens: Perry A. Rice, Daniel Shaffer, C. Lauderbaugh, John McDowell, George G. Rupley and George Steiger, of Mercersburg; Joseph Wingert, postmaster at Clay Lick, and William Conner, of St. Thomas. Rice, Shaffer and Conner were taken to Richmond and immured in Libby prison. Rice died, but his associates were exchanged. The others are thought to have escaped en route.
LEE'S INVASION IN 1863
The campaign into Pennsylvania in 1863 was the most interesting and important movement of the war. The Army of Northern Virginia, under the leadership of Gen. Robert E. Lee, the scholar, the Christian gentleman, the peerless soldier, assisted by such skillful and acknowledged lieutenants as Longstreet, Hill, Ewell and Stuart, was composed of men as brave and true as were ever led, to battle and to death. Successful at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville over greatly superior numbers, this army, despising the adversary whom it had so frequently encountered on the field of carnage, and impelled by a desire to release Virginia from the presence of the two vast armies which were eating out its substance, as well as by a movement into free territory that would secure supplies from the enemy, hoped to achieve a victory which would secure a speedy recognition of the Confederacy.
The plan decided upon by the Confederate commander was to push boldly forward, invade the State, of Pennsylvania, and so to maneuver his forces as to compel the Union Army to attack him on the defensive, and under circumstances which, it was hoped, would secure a brilliant victory to his arms and place his army between the defeated Federals and the capital of the Nation. It was thought this success would place the city of Washington in the possession of the Confederates and secure a recognition of Southern independence by European powers. It was also believed that the Northern people were discouraged and disheartened by their repeated failures to grapple successfully with the gigantic struggle then in progress, and would be willing to accede to such terms of settlement as would involve separation of the States.
The foregoing are some of the results which were sought to be secured to the Confederacy, by the change of policy from a defensive to an offensive one, on the part of the South. It is, however, proper to remark that there were eminent men at Richmond, and distinguished soldiers in the South, who disapproved of this change of policy, and augured ill of the invasion from the beginning. These advocated what was known in Richmond as "the defensive policy." They believed that the interests of the Confederacy would be best promoted by her armies remaining upon her own soil, rather than by removing the scene of hostilities to the North. The most skillful soldier in the Confederate service, if not one of the greatest generals of the age, who advocated this latter policy, was Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. One of its strongest and most eminent supporters was Hon. Alexander H. Stephens.
The movement of the Confederate Army into Pennsylvania was accomplished as follows: Withdrawing his forces from around Fredericksburg, after the battle of Chancellorsville, Lee's advance corps, under lieutenant-Gen. R.S. Ewell, moved first, and was followed by those of Gens. A.P. Hill and Longstreet. Contrary to his expectations, Lee was forced to move into the Shenandoah Valley, and go northward on the west side of North Mountain, instead of on the east, Hookers command (the Army of the Potomac) pressing him so closely. Two divisions of Ewell's corps, Bodes' and Early's, fell upon Milroys command at Winchester and either captured or dispersed it, and gobbled up the greater part of his immense supplies. The portion of the wagon train, which succeeded in escaping, crossed the Potomac, and passing through Hagerstown, Greencastle and Chambersburg with all the confusion attending such a rout, hurried on to Harrisburg. This was one of the many evidences that new perils were threatening the people of the valley. The attack on Winchester occurred June 13, 1863. The stampede followed immediately.
On the heels of Milroy's demoralized teamsters and guards came Lee's advance cavalry, under command of Brig.-Gen. A.G. Jenkins; with the exciting and exaggerated reports which preceded him, came the natural impulse of the people to remove all their valuables, supplies, moneys, etc., to some place of safety. The devastation wrought by the exemplary command of Stuart, the year previous, led the people to expect no great consideration from rebel troops during a general invasion. In this respect their fears were well founded. The mission of Jenkins was two-fold: First, to ascertain whether any Federal forces occupied the valley in advance of the invading army; second, to collect horses and other supplies before they could be removed by the frightened inhabitants. The incidents connected with this raid would fill a volume of rare interest.
At an early hour in the evening of June 15, information of the approach of Jenkins' cavalry was received, and about 11 o'clock they appeared at the southern end of the town. A few scouts were sent forward to reconnoitre. Of the entire command, numbering about 2,000, some 200 were selected to make a dash into the town and strike terror into the hearts of the people. We shall allow Jacob Hoke to describe the scenes that followed:
"When opposite the residence of Mr. H.M. White,the report of a gun was heard. Some eight or ten cavalrymen rode into the Diamond and passed through it on down Main Street, except about four or five. In the darkness, the gas in front of the bank only being lighted, they became separated, and one of them, evidently the officer in command, who was over near the bank, called out, in a peculiar Southern tone, which is about half negro: 'Hawkins! Hawkins!! Whar the d -l are you, Hawkins?' If lieutenant Smith, for such was the gentleman's name, as will appear hereafter, had called upon John Seidem and Thad. Mahon instead of his Satanic majesty, they might have given him the information he so earnestly desired, but they were about that time having a little matter of business transacted with Hawkins over on the court house pavement. But the Lieutenant's anxiety concerning his friend was soon relieved, for, on going across the Diamond to ascertain what had become of him, he fell into the hands of Seiders, and, soon thereafter joined the object of his anxiety, both of them, however, homeless and without arms.
The authorities at Harrisburg, having become convinced that an invasion of the State was imminent, made all possible efforts to meet it. Assured by the National authorities that the State must look after its own defense because of the impracticability of dividing the Army of the Potomac at that critical period, to meet this emergency Maj.-Gen. D.N. Couch was appointed, by the war department, commander of the department of the Susquehanna, with headquarters at Harrisburg.
On June 12, the day following the establishment of this department, Gov. Curtin issued a proclamation to the people of the State, announcing the impending danger and calling for volunteers. Gen. Couch reiterated these sentiments in an address of the same date, and called for immediate enlistment, to check or repel the invading forces immediately after these addresses, fortifications along the river were begun.
A hearty response to these appeals for volunteers was made by the people of Pennsylvania and New York Militia came pouring in, and were organized June 22, into two divisions under command of Gens. Smith and Dana. On the 20th, parts of two of these early arriving New York regiments, about 800 men, were sent under Gen. Knipe to rebuild the Scotland bridge and to defend Chambersburg. Arriving at the latter place on Sunday, the 2lst, the commander made a stirring speech, in which he spoke of his determination to repel the insolent invader. The sequel showed, however, that the courage of these men evaporated before they came, in contact with the enemy.
LEE'S ADVANCE INTO THE STATE
It may be proper to give some idea of the condition of Lee's army. It was known as the Army of Northern Virginia, under command of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and consisted of three infantry corps.
First Corps. - lieutenant-Gen. James Longstreet, commander. It consisted of three infantry divisions commanded respectively by Maj.-Gens. Lafayette McLaws, George E. Pickett and J.B. Hood, and eighty-three pieces of artillery, commanded by Col. J.B. Walton.
Second Corps. - lieutenant-Gen. R.S. Ewell, commander. It had three divisions commanded respectively by Maj.-Gens. Jubal A. Early, R.E. Rodes and Edward Johnson. The artillery, eighty-two pieces, was under Col. S. Crutchfield.
Third Corps. - Leiut.-Gen. A.P. Hill, commander, had three divisions commanded respectively by Maj.-Gens. Anderson, Heth and Pender. The artillery, eighty-three pieces, was under command of Col. B. Lindsay Walker.
In addition to the foregoing infantry and artillery, there was, a cavalry corps under Leiut.-Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, consisting of brigades commanded respectively by Brig.-Gens. Wade Hampton, Fitz Hugh Lee, W.H.F. Lee, B.H. Robertson, W.E. Jones, J.D. Imboden, A.G. Jenkins and Baker. All the infantry and artillery, but only one or two brigades of cavalry advanced through Franklin County, the rest of Stuart's command having crossed the Potomac between the Army of the Potomac and Washington.
A fair estimate of Lee's army puts it from 75,000 to 85,000, the Count of Paris placing it as high as 88,754 officers and soldiers present May 31, 1863.
As has already been remarked, Ewell's corps led the infantry advance in the invasion, the divisions of Bodes and Early crossing the Potomac on the 20th and 21st of June. On the 22nd, these two divisions connected with Jenkins at Hagerstown. In a day or two, Early turned off to the east, passing through Waynesboro, Quincy, Funkstown and Greenwood, across North Mountain to York. In passing Greenwood he burned Thad. Stevens' (Caledonia) iron works. His reasons are given in a letter to the writer, dated Lynchburg, Va., May 7, 1886, thus: "No column of our troops was sent to burn the iron works of Thaddeus Stevens, near Greenwood, in the campaign into Pennsylvania, in 1863. My division of Ewell's corps was ordered to move along the western base of South Mountain until it came to the road from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, which I did, passing through Waynesboro and one or two smaller villages. I found the iron works above mentioned on the road aforesaid, where it begins to ascend South Mountain, and they were burned by my order and on my own responsibility. My reasons for giving the order were founded on the fact that the Federal troops had invariably burned such works in the South wherever they had penetrated, and notably among them the iron works of Hon. John Bell, of Tennessee, who was the constitutional candidate for the presidency in 1860, and who was too old to take any part in the war then pending. Moreover, in some speeches in Congress, Mr. Stevens had exhibited a most vindictive spirit toward the people of the South, as he continued to do to the day of his death. This burning was simply in retaliation for various deeds of barbarity perpetrated by Federal troops in some of the Southern States, as was the subsequent burning of Chambersburg, in 1864."
Johnson's division crossed the Potomac on June 22, and joined the other divisions at Hagerstown. Johnson and Rodes then commenced their march down the valley via Greencastle and Chambersburg, Jenkins preceding them. When Jenkins and Rodes reached the former place, the advance cavalry was met in a bold dash by a small battalion of the First New York (Lincoln) Cavalry, under command of Maj. W.H. Boyd, in front of the Fleming House, just out of Greencastle, on the Chambersburg road. The result was the wounding of Sergeant Milton S. Cafferty and the killing of Corporal William H. Rihl, of Company C, a full account of which is given in the history of Corporal Rihl Post in the sketch of Greencastle Borough in another part of this work.
On the 23d of June, Jenkins again entered Chambersburg, this time with more boldness than before. His demands for various supplies here, as at Greencastle, were not wanting in either modesty or amount; nor were the people slow to supply onions, bacon, bread, and other necessaries. Two hours after the appearance of Jenkins, the forces of Rodes began to arrive, a band playing "Dixie" with considerable satisfaction. On the 24th Gen. Ewell arrived in a carriage, and took possession of the town. The court-house was selected for headquarters, and a rebel flag flaunted from its' cupola. The following modest requisitions were made:
HEADQUARTERS 2nd ARMY CORPS
June 24, 1863.
To the Authorities of Chambersburg, Pa.
By direction of lieutenant-Gen. R.S. Ewell, I require the following articles:
5,000 suits of Clothing, including Hats, Boots and Shoes.
100 good Saddles.
100 good Bridles.
5,000 Bushels of Grain (corn or oats).
10,000 lbs. Sole Leather.
10,000 lbs. Horse Shoes.
400 lbs. Horse Shoe Nails.
Also, the use of printing office and two printers to report at once. All articles, except grain, will be delivered at the Court House Square, at 3 o'clock P.M. today, and grain by 6 o'clock P.M. today.
J.A. HARMON, Maj. and C.Q.M. 2nd Corps D. Arm.
HEADQUARTERS 2ND ARMY CORPS,
June 24, 1863.
By the command of lieutenant-Gen. R.S. Ewell, the citizens of Chambersburg will furnish the following articles by 3 o'clock this afternoon:
6,000 lbs. Lead.
10,000 lbs. Harness Leather.
50 Boxes of Tin.
1,000 Curry Combs and Brushes.
2,000 lbs. Picket Rope.
All the Caps and Powder in town.
Also, all the Neat's Foot Oil.
WILLIAM ALLEN, M. and C.
HEADQUARTERS 2ND ARMY CORPS.
June 24, 1863.
By direction of lieutenant-Gen. R.S. Ewell, the following are demanded
50,000 lbs. Bread.
100 Sacks Salt.
30 Barrels Molasses.
500 Barrels Flour.
25 Barrels Vinegar.
25 Barrels Beans.
25 Barrels Dried Fruit.
25 Barrels Saurkraut.
25 Barrels Potatoes.
11,000 lbs. Coffee.
10,000 lbs. Sugar.
100,000 lbs. Hard Bread
In reply to these extravagant demands upon Chambersburgers, Judge Kimmell, who had acted as provost-marshal the previous year, and had been appointed by Gov. Curtin a general superintendent of affairs during the war, was, by general consent, authorized to speak. Addressing the three staff officers of Gen. Ewell, he said:
"Why, gentlemen, you must suppose that we are made of these things - 10,000 pounds of sole leather, 10,000 pounds of harness leather, 100,000 pounds of bread, 25 barrels of saurkraut - it is utterly out of our power to furnish these things, and now, if you are going to burn us out, you will only have to do it. That's all I have to say about it."
The people furnished what they could and submitted the results.
While in town, Gen. Ewell issued very stringent orders against the sale of intoxicating liquors to his soldiers, and demanded a report of all liquors in the community to the provost-marshal in order that they might be protected. It is more than probable that the good people of the town did not feel disposed just then to engage in a temperance crusade.
Ewells two divisions, Rodes' and Johnson's, passed down the valley through Shippensburg and other towns on the pike, the former going as far as Carlisle, the latter stopping short of it several miles. Jenkins' cavalry preceded them.
On the 24th Hill's and Longstreet's corps crossed the Potomac, the former at Shepherdstown, the latter at Williamsport, and united at Hagerstown, Hill taking the advance. The long lines of gray coats and the immense trains of artillery and supply wagons were a source of great wonder to the people of town and country along the line of march. Many of them had never before seen an army of such vast proportions. These corps passed through Greencastle and the intervening villages, arriving at Chambersburg on the 26th and 27th, Heth's division in the advance. Gens. Hill and Lee both arrived at the Diamond about 10 o'clock of the 26th, and held a conference, which resulted in turning the head of the column toward Gettysburg. This information was conveyed by messengers to the authorities at Harrisburg, who were in constant communication with the Washington officials. These faithful scouts ought all to be pensioned by the Government for their valuable services rendered.
On the evening of June 27, Longstreet's forces, the rear of the army, began to appear at Chambersburg, Hood going through and encamping north on the Harrisburg pike, McLaws and Pickett halting several miles south of town. Gen. Lee selected for his headquarters a grove a mile east of town known as "Messersmith's Woods,"which he and his, staff occupied from Friday morning till Tuesday morning, June 26 - 30. There he held his councils of war and matured the plans which culminated in the three days struggle at Gettysburg. It may be proper here to give one of his general orders, which shows his military policy in the North:
Sunday, June 28, was a trying day for the town of Chambersburg. Its streets were filled with rebel soldiers. Much plundering was done by the men of Longstreet's command, notwithstanding the stringent orders of the commanding general. The following letter, by a lady still living in Chambersburg, not only gives a clue to the condition of things in the community, but presents a phase of Gen. Lee's character. We take it from the "Reminiscences of the War," written by Jacob Hoke.
One of the difficulties encountered by Lee in the Cumberland Valley was the lack of information relative to the position and movements of the Army of the Potomac. This grew out of the fact, that he had detached Stuart's cavalry to make the raid around Hooker's right, and hence was moving, as he confessed, "without his eyes. " On the 29th of June, however, a scout, sent by Longstreet, from Culpeper, Va., to ascertain the movements of the Union Army, reported in Chambersburg to Longstreet, who immediately went with him to Lee's headquarters. This scout reported that the Union Army had crossed the Potomac, and was then encamped about Frederick City - the first information of the kind Lee had received. It was valuable information. Orders had been issued for Ewell to attack Harrisburg. These were countermanded, and all the rebel forces were directed to concentrate at Gettysburg.
The rapid movement of troops and artillery and supply trains through Chambersburg toward Gettysburg, and especially the return of those which had gone in the direction of Harrisburg, convinced the citizens of the town that the conflict between the two armies would not occur at or near Harrisburg but somewhere in the vicinity of Gettysburg. It was highly important, therefore, that this sudden and hurried change of movement, should be communicated at once to the proper authorities. Judge Kimmell, the civil military head of affairs in the town, wrote a message to Gov. Curtin, giving a succinct statement of the situation, and having secured the services of Stephen W. Pomeroy, then a Franklin County ex-soldier, sewed this missive securely in the buckle strap of his pantaloons, and remarked that it was of importance lo the governor and the country. "Get this safe," said the Judge, "and in the shortest time possible to the governor." The charge was heeded. Along roads, through ravines and woods, over fields and hills, with frequent changes of horses, the young man pursued his way and finally reached the telegraph station at Port Royal about midnight, having during the day walked seventeen and ridden forty-one miles. The message was taken from the buckle strap and sent to the governor. It served its purpose in warning the proper authorities of the change of program on the part of the rebel chief, and led to Union success. Its importance is acknowledged in the following letter which is self-explanatory:
WASHINGTON, Dec. 11, 1883.
MY DEAR SIR: - Your dispatch was the first authentic information I received of the concentration of the army of General Lee on Gettysburg, and, treating it as true, acted on it.
Yours truly, A.G. CURTIN.
REV. S.W. POMEROY.
The Rebel army concentrated at Gettysburg, and on the 1st, 2nd and 3d of July was fought the bloodiest battle of the war between the haughty, self-confident and well-disciplined Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by one of the ablest generals of the age, and the Army of the Potomac until the 28th of June, under the command of Maj.-Gen. Joseph Hooker, but subsequent to that date of Maj.- Gen. George G. Meade. Meade's army consisted of seven infantry corps, as follows: First, commanded by Maj.-Gen. John F. Reynolds; Second, Maj.-Gen. W.S. Hancock; Third, Maj.-Gen. Daniel E. Sickles; Fifth, Maj.-Gen. George Sykes; Sixth, Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick; Eleventh, Maj.-Gen. O.O. Howard; Twelfth, Maj.-Gen. H.W. Slocum; cavalry corps, Maj.-Gen. Alfred Pleasonton; total, about 95,000 men, with 352 pieces of artillery. During the first two days, success seemed to favor the Rebel Army, but on the third it changed to the Union side. The adjutant-generals office, in an official statement issued in 1886, gives the aggregate losses in killed, wounded and missing as follows: Army of the Potomac, 22, 990; Army of Northern Virginia, 20,448. For particulars as to this terrible battle the reader is referred to articles and books which develop the subject.
Lee's retreat occurred through Franklin County, but by a new route. The battle closing on the 3d of July, he began to send his sick and wounded, together with the supply trains, to the rear via Waynesboro, Ringgold, Leitersburg and Hagerstown. Many of the wounded, probably most, passed on the interior line through Greenwood, New Franklin, Greencastle and Hagerstown to Williamsport. The escort of this vast army of wounded men was given to Brig.- Gen. J.D. Imoden, whose command arrived at Gettysburg July 3, too late to participate in the engagement, but just in time to guard the dead and dying to the rear. Gen. Imboden thus reports the matter, commencing with his visit to Lee's tent after the close of the third days battle:
"In a little while he (Lee) called up a servant from his sleep to take his horse; spoke mournfully, by name, of several of his friends who had fallen during the day, and when a candle had been lighted, invited me alone into his tent, where, as soon as we were seated, he remarked: 'We must return to Virginia. As many of our poor wounded as possible must be taken home. I have sent for you because your men are fresh, to guard the trains back to Virginia. The duty will be arduous, responsible and dangerous, for I am afraid you will be harassed by the enemy's cavalry. I can spare you as much artillery as you require, but no other troops, as I shall need all I have to return to the Potomac by a different route from yours. All the transportation and all the care of the wounded will be entrusted to you. You will recross the mountain by the Chambersburg road, and then proceed to Williamsport by any route you deem best, without halting. There rest and feed your animals, then ford the river, and make no halt till you reach Winchester, where I will again communicate with you.' As I was about leaving to return to my camp, he came out of his tent and said to me in a low tone: 'I will place in your hands tomorrow a sealed package for President Davis, which you will retain in your own possession till you are across the Potomac, when you will detail a trusty commissioned officer to take it to Richmond with all possible despatch, and deliver it immediately to the President. I impress it upon you that whatever happens, this package must not fall into the hands of the enemy. If you should unfortunately be captured, destroy it.
"On the morning of the 4th my written instructions and the package for Mr. Davis were delivered to me. It was soon apparent that the wagons and ambulances and the wounded could not be ready to move till late in the afternoon. The General sent me four four-gun field batteries, which, with my own, gave me twenty-two guns to defend the trains.
"Shortly after noon the very windows of heaven seemed to have been opened. Rain fell in dashing torrents, and in a little while the whole face of the earth was covered with water. The meadows became small lakes; raging streams ran across the road in every depression of the ground; wagons, ambulances and artillery carriages filled the roads and fields in all directions. The storm increased in fury every moment. Canvas was no protection against it, and the poor wounded, lying upon the hard, naked boards of the wagon bodies, were drenched by the cold rain. Horses and mules were blinded and maddened by the storm, and became almost unmanageable. The roar of the winds and waters made it almost impossible to communicate orders. Night was rapidly approaching and there was danger that in the darkness the confusion would become worse confounded. About 4 P.M. the head of the column was put in motion and began the ascent of the mountain. After dark I set out to gain the advance. The train was seventeen miles, long when drawn out on the road. It was moving rapidly, and from every wagon issued wails of agony. For four hours I galloped along, passing to the front, and heard more - it was too dark to see - of the horrors of war than I had witnessed from the battle of Bull Run up to that day. In the wagons were men wounded and mutilated in every conceivable way. Some had their legs shattered by a shell or minie-ball; some were shot through their bodies; others had arms torn to shreds; some had received a ball in the face, or a jagged piece of shell had lacerated their heads. Scarcely one in a hundred had received adequate surgical aid. Many had been without food for thirty-six hours. Their ragged, bloody and dirty clothes, all clotted and hardened with blood, were rasping the tender, inflamed lips of their gaping wounds. Very few of the wagons had even straw in them, and all were without springs. The road was rough and rocky. The jolting was enough to have killed sound, strong men. From nearly every wagon, as the horses trotted on, such cries and shrieks as these greeted the ear: 'Oh God! why can't I die?' 'My God! will no one have mercy and kill me and end my misery?' 'Oh! stop one minute and take me out and leave me to die on the roadside.' 'I am dying! I am dying! My poor wife! my dear children! what will become of you? Some were praying, others were uttering the most fearful oaths and execrations that despair could wring from them in their agony. Occasionally a wagon would be passed from which only low, deep moans and sobs could be heard. No help could be rendered to any of the sufferers. On, on; we must move on. The storm continued and the darkness was fearful. There was no time to fill even a canteen with water for a dying man; for, except the drivers and the guards disposed in compact bodies every half mile, all were wounded and helpless in that vast train of misery. The night was awful, and yet it was our safety, for no enemy would dare attack us when he could not distinguish friend from foe. We knew that when day broke upon us we would be harrassed by bands of cavalry hanging on our flanks. Therefore our aim was to go as far as possible under cover of the night, and so we kept on. It was my sad lot to pass the whole distance from the rear to the head of the column, and no language can convey an idea of the horrors of that most horrible of all nights of our long and bloody war.
"Daybreak on the morning of the 5th found the head of our column at Greencastle, twelve or fifteen miles from the Potomac at Williamsport, our point of crossing. Here our apprehended troubles from the Union cavalry began. From the fields and cross-roads they attacked us in small bodies, striking the column where there were few or no guards, and creating great confusion.
"To add still further to our perplexities, a report was brought that the Federals in large force held Williamsport. This fortunately proved untrue. After a great deal of harrassing and desultory fighting along the road, nearly the whole immense train reached Williamsport a little after the middle of the day. The town was taken possession of; all the churches, schoolhouses, etc., were converted into hospitals, and proving insufficient, many of the private houses were occupied. Straw was obtained on the neighboring farms; the wounded were removed from the wagons and housed; the citizens were all put to cooking, and the army surgeons to dressing wounds. The dead were selected from the train - for many had perished on the way - and were decently buried. All this had to be done because the tremendous rains had raised the river more than ten feet above the fording stage, and we could not possibly cross.
"Our situation was frightful. We had over 10,000 animals and all the wagons of Gen. Lee's army under our charge, and all the wounded that could be brought from Gettysburg. Our supply of provisions consisted of a few wagon loads of flour and a small lot of cattle. My effective force was only about 2,100 men and twenty odd field pieces. We did not know where our army was; the river could not be crossed; and small parties of cavalry were still hovering around. The means of ferriage consisted of two small boats and a small wire rope stretched across the river, which, owing to the force of the swollen current, broke several times during the day. To reduce the space to be defended as much as possible, all the wagons and animals were parked close together on the river bank.
"Believing that an attack would soon be made upon us, I ordered the wagoners to be mustered, and, taking three out of every four, organized them into companies, and armed them with the weapons of the wounded men found in the train. By this means I added to my effective force about 500 men. Slightly wounded officers promptly volunteered their services to command these improvised soldiers; and many of our quartermasters and commissaries did the same thing. We ware not seriously molested on the 5th; but next morning about 9 o'clock information reached me that a large body of cavalry from Frederick, Md., was rapidly advancing to attack us. As we could not retreat farther, it was at once frankly made known to the troops that unless we could repel the threatened attack we should all become prisoners, and that the loss of his whole transportation would probably ruin Gen. Lee; for it could not be replaced for many months, if at all, in the then exhausted condition of the Confederate States. So far from repressing the ardor of the troops, this frank announcement of our peril inspired all with the utmost enthusiasm. Men and officers alike, forgetting the sufferings of the past few days, proclaimed their determination to drive back the attacking force or perish in the attempt. All told, we were less than 3,000 men. The advancing force we knew to be more than double ours, consisting, as we had ascertained, of five regular and eight volunteer regiments of cavalry, with eighteen guns, all under the command of Gen.'s Buford and Kilpatrick. We had no works of any kind; the country was open and almost level, and there was no advantage of position we could occupy. It must necessarily be a square stand-up fight, face to face. We had twenty-two field guns of various calibre, and one Whitworth. These were disposed in batteries, in a semi-circle, about one mile out of the village, on the summit of a very slight rising ground that lies back of the town. Except the artillery, our troops were held out of view of the assailants, and ready to be moved promptly to any menaced point, along the whole line of nearly two miles in extent. Knowing that nothing could save us but a bold "bluff" game, orders had been given to the artillery, as soon as the advancing forces came within range, to open fire along the whole line, and keep it up with the utmost rapidity. A little after 1 o'clock they appeared on two roads in our front, and our batteries opened. 'They soon had their guns in position, and a very lively artillery fight began. We fired with great rapidity, and in less than an hour two of our batteries reported that their ammunition was exhausted. This would have been fatal to us but for the opportune arrival, at the critical moment, of an ammunition train from Winchester. The wagons were ferried across to our side as soon as possible, and driven on the field in a gallop to supply the, silent guns. Not having men to occupy half our line they were moved up in order of battle, first to one battery, then withdrawn and double-quicked to another, but out of view of our assailants till they could be shown at some other point on our line. By this maneuvering we made the impression that we had a strong supporting force in rear of all our guns along the entire front. To test this, Gens. Buford and Kilpatrick dismounted five regiments and advanced them on foot on our right. We concentrated there all the men we had, wagoners and all, and thus, with the aid of the united fire of all our guns directed at the advancing line, we drove it back, and rushed forward two of our batteries 400 or 500 yards farther to the front. This boldness prevented another charge, and the fight was continued till near sunset with the artillery. About that time Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee sent a message from toward Greencastle, that if we could hold out an hour he would re-enforce us with 3,000 men. This intelligence elicited a loud and long continued cheer along our whole line, which was heard and understood by our adversaries, as we learned from prisoners taken. A few minutes later Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, advancing from Hagerstown, fell unexpectedly upon the rear of their right wing, and in ten minutes they were in rapid retreat by their left flank in the direction of Boonsboro. Night coming on enabled them to escape.
"By extraordinary good fortune, we had thus saved all of Gen. Lee's trains. A bold charge at any time before sunset would have broken our feeble lines, and we should all have fallen an easy prey to the Federals. This came to be known as the wagoners' fight in our army, from the fact that so many of them were armed, and did such gallant service in repelling the attack made on our right by the dismounted regiments.
"Our defeat that day would have been an, irreparable blow to Gen. Lee, in the loss of all his transportation. Every man engaged knew this, and probably in no fight in the war was there a more determined spirit shown, than by this handful of cooped-up troops. The next day our army from Gettysburg arrived, and the country is familiar with the manner in which it escaped across the Potomac, on the night of the 9th.
"It may be interesting to repeat one or two facts to show the peril in which we were until the river could be bridged. About 4,000 prisoners, taken at Gettysburg, were ferried across the river by the morning of the 9th, and I was ordered to guard them to Staunton. Before we had proceeded two miles, I received a note from Gen. Lee, to report to him in person immediately. I rode to the river, was ferried over, and galloped out toward Hagerstown. As I proceeded, I became satisfied that a serious demonstration was making along our front, from the heavy artillery firing extending for a long distance along the line. I overtook Gen. Lee riding to the front near Hagerstown. He immediately reined up, and remarked, that he believed I was familiar with all the fords of the Potomac above Williamsport, and the roads approaching them. I replied that I knew them perfectly. He then called up some one of his staff to write down my answers to his questions, and required me to name all fords as high up as Cumberland, and describe minutely their character, and the roads and surrounding country on both sides of the river, and directed me to send my brother, Col. Imboden, to him to act as a guide with his regiment, if he should be compelled to retreat higher up the river to cross it. His situation was then very precarious. When about parting from him to recross the river, and move on with the prisoners, he told me, they would probably be rescued before I reached Winchester, my guard was so small, and he expected a force of cavalry would cross at Harper's Ferry to cut us off; and he could not spare to me any additional troops, as he might be hard pressed, before he got over the river, which was still very much swollen by the rains. Referring to the high water, he 1aughingly inquired: 'Does it ever quit raining about here? If so, I should like to see a clear day.'
"These incidents go to show how near Gettysburg came to ending the war in 1863. If we had been successful in that battle, the probabilities are that Baltimore and Washington would at once have fallen into our hands; and at that time there was so large a 'peace party' in the North, that the Federal Government would have found it difficult, if not impossible, to carry on the war. Gen. Lee's opinion was, that we lost the battle because Pickett was not supported as he was to have been. On the other hand, if Gens. Buford and Kilpatrick had captured the 10,000 animals, and all the transportation of Lee's army at Williamsport, it would haze been an irreparable loss, and would probably have led to the fall of Richmond in the autumn, of 1863. On such small circumstances do the affairs of nations sometimes turn."
The infantry forces retreated by the way of Monterey, Rouzersville, Waynesboro arid Leitersburg, the supply trains being sent on an interior line.
One of the most important events connected with the retreat was Gen. Kilpatrick's capture of about nine miles of the rebel supply train. The plans for this important work were matured at the Monterey House, then kept by David Miller, now the popular manager and proprietor of the Clermont House.
Two columns were sent out, one piloted by Mr. C.H. Buhrman from Monterey, via Blue Summit, through devious ways, the thunder and lightning of that dark and stormy night affording proper accompaniments; the other front the present Clermont House across to the Gum Spring or Furnance road, thence along its line to the interception of the Baltimore pike near the toll-gate. These troops, operating from different directions, captured many hundred prisoners, and cut down and burned many hundred wagons burdened with pork, flour and other articles captured by the rebels from Pennsylvanians. This event, which Gen. Kilpatrick regarded one of his most brilliant achievements, and which was the most noted encounter had on Franklin County soil, is not generally understood. Two Franklin County civilians, viz.: David Miller and Charles H. Buhrman, performed meritorious services, for which they have, hitherto, had no recognition. The following letter of Mr. Buhrman, written in reply to some inquiries concerning his duty as a pilot of the First Vermont Cavalry, and published originally in the Valley Spirit, will explain itself, and prove interesting to citizens and ex- soldiers:
ROUZERVILLE, PENN., October 12, 1886
MR. J. FRAISE RICHARD,
Dear Sir: Your favor of the 11th inst. received, and questions answered as far as I can remember. I lived at that time at Fountain Dale, Adams Co., Penn., two miles east of Monterey Springs, on the turnpike leading to Emmittsburg. I found out through a man by the name of James Embley, who came to my place and told me that Lee's wagon train was retreating by way of the Furnace road, a mountain road leading from Fairfield to the turnpike, coming on the pike at the toll-gate near Monterey Springs. "That was on Saturday afternoon, about 2 o'clock, July 4, 1868, as near as I can remember.
"When I found out that Lee's wagon train was retreating, I mounted a horse and started to inform our cavalry, which I supposed would be at Emmittsburg. But two miles below my place, I came to the Yankee pickets, and with them was one of Kilpatrick's scouts that I was well acquainted with. I told him of the wagon train retreating; he sent me to Gen. Custer, and Custer sent me to Gen. Kilpatrick. At that time they were just planting a cannon to shell the rebels on McMullin's Hill. When I informed Gen. Kilpatrick he ordered an advance at once to Monterey. I rode with the General as far as my farm, two miles east of Monterey. Just before getting to my place we met a little girl that had just left Monterey. She knew me, and told me to tell the soldiers not to go to Monterey, as the rebels had planted the pike full of cannons in front of Monterey and would kill all the soldiers when they get there Kilpatrick laughed and remarked that they kept no account of cannons, as they just rode over them. When I got to the gate that goes into my farm I told the General I lived there, and would stop but he requested me to go with them to Monterey and see the fun; so I went with him. We ran against the rebel pickets at Clermont, a quarter of a mile east of Monterey. It was then getting dark in the evening. After passing Clermont about 150 yards the rebels fired three or four shots with grape and canister, and then pulled up their battery, and retreated. I don't think they killed any of Kilpatrick's men with the battery, as they fired too soon, and the grape and canister went over our men's heads; but it made some of our men retreat, and caused a great deal of confusion. I told Kilpatrick if he would dismount a regiment and go down through the edge of the woods, he could flank them and capture the battery. He did so, but they bad retreated by the time our men got to Monterey.
Kilpatrick asked me which way I thought the wagon train was going, and where I supposed they would strike the river. I told him they could go by Smithsburg and Boonsboro, and cross the river at Sharpsburg, or go by Leitersburg and Hagerstown an d cross at Williamsport. He asked me if there was any road that I knew of that I could take a regiment and head off that wagon train. I told him there was that I could take them by Mount Zion and then down the Raven Rock Hollow and strike Smithsburg, and if they had not taken that road, we could cross to Leitersburg and there we would strike them for certain. It was the 1st Vermont regiment, commanded by Colonel Preston that I was with. When we got to Smithsburg we found everything quiet, as the Rebels had taken the Leitersburg road. The Colonel asked me what was to be done now, as there were no Rebels there. I told him we would find plenty of them before daylight, as we must strike them at Leitersburg. We got to Leitersburg about daybreak on Sunday morning, finding the read crowded with Rebels, cattle, horses, wagons, etc.
The regiment I. was with captured a great many prisoners, cattle, horses, etc., and destroyed the wagon train from Leitersburg back to Ringgold. There they met the remainder of Kilpatrick's cavalry. They had destroyed the wagon train from Monterey t& Ringgold, a distance of six miles, and from Ringgold to Leitersburg, a distance of three miles more, making nine miles of wagon train captured or burned or destroyed by cutting off wagon tongues and cutting spokes in wheels. I am not able to say how much, if any, of the wagon train was destroyed between Leitersburg and Hagerstown, as I went only as far as Leitersburg with the 1st Vermont regiment, when it divided, part going toward Hagerstown, and part toward Ringgold. I went with the part that went toward Ringgold, as that was on my way home. I left them about 8 o'clock on Sunday morning, and started home by way of Ringgold.
Before I got to Ringgold I was taken by Kilpatrick's pickets. They took me for a Rebel, and all I could say would not change their opinion, as they would not believe anything I said. They took me to the schoolhouse at Ringgold, where the officers had their headquarters; but as soon as the officers saw me they recognized me, having seen me with Kilpatrick the evening before. After leaving Ringgold on my way home, ongoing up a. hill near the farm of George Harbaugh, when I got to the top of the hill the Rebels were coming up the other side. I saw them when I was about 100 yards from them; turned my horse and rode slowly until I got down the hill far enough that they could not see me. Then I ran my horse to the foot of the hill and left the road and got in the woods and got away from them. I kept the woods until I came to the Germantown road, near the Germantown schoolhouse; then took a near cut through the swamp and came out on the Sabillasville road, near Monterey, but the Rebel pickets were stationed near Monterey at a turn in the lane. They saw me first, and had dismounted and gone around the turn of the lane. I could not see them for a very large cherry tree that stood at the corner of the lane. They let me ride up within about sixty yards of them, when four of them stepped around the turn of the lane and told me to halt. There was an orchard on the left side of the road and a high post fence on each side. I knew my horse could not jump the fence, and I did not dare to turn him and go back, as it was a straight lane for a quarter of a mile and they would have easily hit me if I had made the attempt. One of them called to me to dismount, and, as I was near the orchard fence, I "dismounted" over the fence and did some good running from that to the Pine Swamp, about one-fourth of a mile. They shot four times at me, but missed me. I heard the balls whistle over my head, as it was down hill and they shot over me. I lost my horse, saddle and bridle. I was in the swamp only a few minutes until they were there; but as the bushes were very thick, I soon got away from them and kept the woods until I got home, two miles from there. It was then two or three o'clock on Sunday afternoon. I was at home only a few minutes when I saw the Rebel cavalry coming to my house. They took a near cut from Clermont, and came down the old road. They saw me at the same time I saw them. I passed in my front door and out my back door.
My orchard runs right back of my house, and one of my horses was standing under an apple tree near the house. I mounted the horse and got to the mountain before they were aware that I was not in the house. They searched the house from garret to cellar, and told my wife if they found me they would hang me to the first tree they came to. When I got to the mountain I made a halter out of hickory bark, and saved the horse in that way, as they did not find him. I kept myself hid until after the retreat of Lee's army, but lost three horses and nine head of cattle by being away. I have given you the facts as near as I can remember.
Yours very respectfully,
Some weeks ago the Valley Spirit kindly published for the compiler of this work an interesting personal letter from Mr. Charles H. Buhrman, giving an account of the duly great military engagement which occurred within the limits of Franklin County, and which resulted in the destruction of a large part of Ewell's wagon train on its retreat from the bloody field of Gettysburg. That engagement, let it be remembered, occurred on the mountain and in the Cumberland Valley, horn Monterey through Rouzersville and Ringgold to and beyond Leitersburg. From the official report of Brig.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, commanding the Third Division of the cavalry corps, dated August 10, 1883, is taken the following:
"On the morning of the 4th I received orders from Headquarters Cavalry Corps to move with my division, to Emmittsburg, where I would find Col. Huey's brigade of Brig.-Gen. Gregg's division; that Lee's army had evacuated Gettysburg at 3 o' clock that morning; that a heavy train of wagons was moving on the road to Hagerstown; that I was expected to take with me my entire division and the brigade referred to, destroy this train and operate on the enemy's rear and flanks. We reached Emmittsburg at 3 P.M. (Col. Huey's brigade joined the division at this place). Without halting passed on the road to Monterey, intending to cross the mountain at that point. Stuart's cavalry was at Millers. We forced him off the road and passed on. The top of the mountain had nearly been gained, when the enemy opened on the advance with artillery and infantry. At the same time the rear, under Col. Huey, was attacked by Stuart's cavalry. On my left was a deep ravine, and on my right a steep, rugged mountain, and a road too narrow to reverse even a gun; to add to this unpleasant position it was raining in torrents.
"Never under such perilous circumstances did a command behave better; not a word was spoken; there was no confusion. From a farmer's boy I learned the nature of the road and country on the mountain, made my disposition and ordered a charge; in a moment the heights were gained and many prisoners taken. Now the rumble of the enemy's train could be heard rolling down the mountain. The enemy was in position half a mile further on, at the intersection of the road from Gettysburg to Hagerstown, upon which I was moving (viz., near the tollgate - R.). The enemy's infantry and artillery were approaching rapidly on the Gettysburg road, and he had already opened on my position with two guns. No time was to be lost if I wished to reach the train and save my command Pennington, always ready, always willing, quickly came into position and returned the enemy's fire. Gen. Custer's brigade was ordered to move forward, clear the road, and attack the train. The attack was successful.
"In the meantime the First Vermont Cavalry (lieutenant-Col. Preston) had been sent along the mountain over a wood road to Smithsburg, and thence to Hagerstown (should be Leitersburg - R.) to intercept the train. A strong force of dismounted men and two guns of Pennington's battery were now sent on the road in direction of Gettysburg to barricade the road and hold the enemy in check until the column had passed. Many fierce but unsuccessful attempts were made, on this position during the night. At daylight the whole command had 'safely passed, and Ewell's large train was entirely destroyed, save eight forges, thirty wagons, and a few ambulances loaded with wounded rebel officers (sent with prisoners to Frederick City).
"At 9 A.M. on the 5th the command reached Smithsburg with 1,360 prisoners, one battle flag, and a large number of horses and mules, several hundred of the enemy's wounded being left upon the field. We lost five killed, including one commissioned officer, ten wounded, and twenty-eight missing."
In a recent communication to the Spirit, reference was made briefly to the part taken in this important engagement by a Franklin County man, David Miller. The following is an interesting letter from Mr. Miller, which will become a historical supplement to the communication of Mr. Buhrman:
CLERMONT, PENN., November 23, 1886.
PROF J. FRAISE RICHARD,
Dear Sir - In answer to your letter concerning the capture of Lee's wagon train by Gen. Kilpatrick on the night of July 4, and morning of the 5th, 1863, I beg to say I remember it very distinctly.
My father rented Monterey Springs from Mr. Samuel Buhrman and kept the house from April, 1861, to April, 1866. Monterey being on the turnpike, at the top of South Mountain is the main crossing in the southeastern part of Franklin County, Penn., and was resorted to in times of rebel invasions by not only many persons of Washington and Antrim Townships of this county, but by many from Washington County, Maryland, and the Valley of Virginia. At this place, in times of danger, pickets were always placed from the Monterey House to the western side of the mountain to give notice if the rebels were approaching.
At the time of the battle of Gettysburg a large number of people were here anxiously awaiting news from the field of carnage, which could be seen from the adjacent hills. On the afternoon of July 4 a company of rebel cavalry came to Monterey from the tollgate, about half a mile on the western side, where the old Furnace road intersects the turnpike, over which roads the train was passing. After staying an hour or longer they left, and soon a rebel battery came from the same direction and placed a cannon on the turnpike between the house and barn. Another party was stationed farther east where the Clermont house now is and the pike commences to descend the mountain.
They kept all the persons at the Monterey as prisoners, placing a guard over them at the house. They gave my nephew, Willie Waddell, and myself privilege to go wherever we wished, to look after things, but required us to report every fifteen minutes to Sergeant Grabill, who was stationed at the front door of the house. About dusk I saw a great deal of commotion among them and asked some of the soldiers what was going on. "Oh nothing! Just you report to Sergeant Grabill," was the reply. I came to the house and asked Willie Waddell whether he knew what was going on. "Yes," said he, "I just came down from the observatory on the top of the house and could hear the Union troops coming up the mountain."
Very soon the cannonading commenced, but did not last long. The rebels hitched horses to their cannon and went toward the tollgate on a run, Sergeant Grabill not waiting for any one to report to him. One of the first men I met after the arrival of the Union troops was Gen. Custer, who, after questioning me, called Gen. Kilpatrick standing near. Gen. Kilpatrick asked me the distance to the foot of the mountain on the western side and whether troops could march on both sides of the turnpike. I told him they could as far as the tollgate. He immediately ordered a cannon to be placed in front of the Monterey house to throw shells after the retreating rebels. At the same time he ordered a regiment to march after them. The officer in command said he could not go while they were throwing shell in the rear of his men. Kilpatrick said, "Yes you can," and at the same directed the officer in charge of the cannon to throw his shells high so that there would be no danger to the Union troops. The rebels returned the fire for a time from the neighborhood of the tollgate, but when the Union troops approached they ceased.
Kilpatrick inquired of me whether there was any other road by which he could get to the foot of the mountain. I informed him of the Mount Zion road to Smithsburg and Leitersburg, the distance to the former place being eight miles, to the latter eleven. He then asked me whether I knew of any one acquainted with the road who would go as a guide. I had seen Mr. C.H. Buhrman with the soldiers when they came to Monterey. I said, "Mr. Buhrman is the man for you." Mr. Buhrman being called up. Gen. Kilpatrick asked him whether he knew the Mount Zion road to Smithsburg and Leitersburg, and whether he could find it such a dark night; if so, whether he would go as a guide for a regiment. Mr. Buhrman said he knew the road well, could find it no matter how dark the night, and would go as a guide.
Calling Col. Preston, Gen. Kilpatrick informed him that Mr. Buhrman would act as his guide. Soon the tramping of horses began through mud and rain in one of the darkest nights I ever knew. As soon as Col. Preston had started, Gen. Kilpatrick ordered a lieutenant, with James McCulloh as guide, to go past the Benchoff farm to the old Furnace road to cut off that portion of the train between the Gum Spring and the turnpike, which added one and a half miles more to the part already attacked and from which they brought from seventy-five to one hundred prisoners to Monterey. The cannonading continued for several hours as our troops were descending the western side of the mountain. By daylight on Sunday morning. July 5, Gen. Kilpatrick, with all his troops and prisoners except a few who were too badly wounded to be moved, had left Monterey. One of these wounded died soon after.
I never knew any one to direct movements so rapidly as Gen. Kilpatrick did that night, nor men so eager to follow as were the Union soldiers. There never was a greater victory under such adverse circumstances with the loss of so small a number of men.
Respectfully yours, DAVID MILLER.
Morrow Burns, of Washington Township, and several of his neighbors,. John Ohler, Daniel Hollinger, Dick Bonebrake, Hugh Sibbett and others from Waynesboro, were captured by, the rebels on Saturday evening and held as prisoners during the period of heaviest cannonading, very much to their personal discomfort. Citizens along the line from Rouzersville to Leitersburg remember very vividly the pyrotechnic display of July 4 and 5, 1863, made by the burning of rebel wagons thoroughly supplied with the pork and flour of Pennsylvania farmers; but in the future they prefer to have their celebrations under the direction of men pursuing peaceful callings.
Many minor skirmishes occurred within the county, during the invasion, which can only be referred to. Captain Dahlgreen dashed upon Greencastle during the days of fighting at Gettysburg, and captured a number of prisoners and a large amount of important mail matter being sent to the front. Near the Caledonia Iron Works, recently destroyed, Gen. Gregg's command had a brush with Imboden's regular guard. At Cearfoos' Cross-roads, Captain Jones' command made a spirited attack on Imboden's guard, and did considerable execution.
The self-confident, boastful spirit, which characterized the rebel army on the advance, was materially modified during the retreat. Citizens along the line took no little pleasure in taunting there with the remarkable change that had occurred; then, too, greater lawlessness characterized the conduct of the soldiers on the retreat. Defeated, disheartened and hungry, they were reckless in their demands for money and supplies, and committed upon the people indignities that would have received severe punishment on the advance.
Lee's army crossed the Potomac into Virginia at Falling Waters and, Williamsport, on the 13th of July, and thus ended, in defeat and extensive ruin of his army, Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania.**
McCAUSLAND'S INVASION AND BURNING OF CHAMBERSBURG, 1864
It was hoped that Lee's invasion would end the scourgings inflicted upon Franklin County; not so, however. The severest ordeal of all was yet to be passed through; but in this case, the blow fell especially upon the county's capital in the year of its first centennial. One hundred years had elapsed since Col. Benjamin Chambers had laid out the town, the beautiful town of Chambersburg. They were years of change and growth, of adversity and prosperity, of peace and joy. How suddenly, however, the happy remembrances of the past were embittered by the overpowering afflictions of the present.
Maj.-Gen. D.N. Couch was in command of the department of the Susquehanna, and expected to defend the border from rebel raids with only a few hundred men. As rapidly as he secured and organized regiments of volunteers, they were ordered elsewhere by the secretary of war, leaving him utterly helpless. Under these unfavorable circumstances the raid of 1864 was made. Gen. Early was, at this time, commanding the Shenandoah region, having been sent by Gen. Lee, with a corps, to expel Gen. Hunter, the successor of Gen. Siegel in the valley. On account of lack of ammunition, Hunter fell back, giving Early opportunity to move at will. Having crossed the Potomac, he moved rapidly on Washington, defeating Gen. Lew Wallace at the Monocacy; but being checkmated by the gathering forces around the capital city, he returned with his plunder through Snicker's Gap, and concentrated his troops around Martinsburg. Gen. Hunter, having returned from his wild goose chase, was occupying the north bank of the Potomac, with Averill's cavalry on his right flank, to confront Gen. McCausland's cavalry on Early's left.
On the 28th of July, Gen. Early ordered Brig.-Gen. John A. McCausland to proceed with his own brigade of mounted infantry, and the cavalry brigade of Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, aggregating about 2,900 men, to Chambersburg, and after capturing it, demand a tribute of $100,000 in gold, or $500,000 in greenbacks. In default of either proposition, he was to burn the town. On the ensuing night, he captured the seven Union pickets along the river, and the next morning, turning Averill's right, started on his raid. He met no opposition of any consequence, as his command moved rapidly, by way of Clear Spring and Mercersburg, to the doomed town. It may be wise to allow Gen. McCausland to tell his own story:
"We reached Chambersburg by daylight on the 30th. The approach to the town was defended only by one piece of artillery, and some regular troops, that were soon driven off, and the advance of our force took possession of the town. The main part of the two brigades was formed in line on the high ground overlooking the town. I at once went into the place with my staff, and requested some of the citizens to inform the city authorities that I wanted to see them. I also sent my staff through the town, to find out where the proper officials were, and inform them that I had a proclamation for their consideration. Not one could be found. I then directed the proclamation to be read to many of the citizens that were near me, and requested them to hunt up their officers, informing them I would wait until they could either find them, or, by consultation among themselves, determine what they would do. Finally, I informed them, that I would wait six hours, and if they would comply with the requisition, their town would be safe; and, in case they did not, it would be destroyed in accordance with my orders from Gen. Early. After a few hours of delay, many citizens came to me; some were willing to pay the money, others were not. I urged them to comply, with such reasons as occurred to me at the time, and told them plainly what they might expect. I showed to my own officers the written instructions of Gen. Early, and before a single house was destroyed, both the citizens and the Confederate officers, that were present, fully understood why it was done, and by whose orders. After waiting until the expiration of the six hours, and finding that the proclamation would not be complied with, the destruction of the town was begun by firing the most central blocks first, and after the inhabitants had been removed from them. Thus the town was destroyed, and the inhabitants driven to the hills and fields adjacent thereto. No lives were lost by the citizens, and only one soldier was killed, and he was killed after the troops left the vicinity of the place. About noon the troops were reformed on the high ground overlooking the town, where most of them had been posted in the early morning, and the return to the Potomac was begun shortly afterward. We encamped at McConnellsburg that night, and reached the river the next day, at or near Hancock, Md."
Gen. McCausland is very desirous, it seems, to escape from the responsibility of this act of vandalism. He throws the burden upon Gen. Jubal A. Early, his superior officer, who had exercised upon Pennsylvanians, the previous year, his propensity to indulge in pyrotechnic displays, at the expense of his enemies.
The following is substantially the authority which McCausland had for his diabolical acts, the order having been read in the presence of a number of prominent men of Chambersburg:
To GEN. J. McCAUSLAND: You are hereby ordered to proceed with such forces as will be detailed, and as rapidly as possible, to the town of Chambersburg, Penn., and demand of the authorities the sum of $100,000O in gold, or in lieu thereof the sum of $500,000 in greenbacks, and in case this demand is not complied with, then in retaliation for the burning of seven properties of peaceful inhabitants of the valley of Virginia, by order of the Federal Gen. Hunter, you will proceed to burn the town of Chambersburg and rapidly return to this point.
Signed: J.A. EARLY,
But Gen. Early has not been wanting in acknowledging his responsibility for the act. In a number of letters, he has assumed the burden. His reasons are substantially that Gen. Hunter, having destroyed many private and public buildings in the Shenandoah Valley, and other Union officers having committed similar acts of destruction in the Southern States, he "determined to demand compensation therefor from some town in Pennsylvania, and in the event of failure to comply, to retaliate by burning said town. The town of Chambersburg was selected because it was the only one of any consequence accessible to his troops, and for no other reason." Notwithstanding Gen. Early's affirmations, there are many who insist that several other reasons for the burning exist: First. To retaliate for the supposed sympathy that harbored John Brown in 1859 while he was making his preparations for the raid upon Harper's Ferry. Second. That the money accruing from the levy, had it been paid, would have been very acceptable to the rebel officers who had been fighting for years for glory never to be realized, and money likely to continue at a ruinous discount.
The tribute was not and could not be paid. While McCausland and his major, Harry Gilmore, were endeavoring by persuasion and threats to intimidate the people into compliance with their demands, the rebel soldiers were engaged in an indiscriminate robbery of the people in all parts of the town. Hats, caps, boots, shoes, watches, silverware, clothing - everything of value was taken by the horde, under penalty of summary vengeance should their owners dare to refuse. Infuriated by the refusal of the people to pay the required sum, Gilmore arrested Thomas B. Kennedy, J. McDowell Sharpe, William McClellan, Dr. J.C. Richards, William H. McDowell, W.S. Everett, E.G. Etter and M.A. Foltz, and announced his purpose to take them to Richmond as hostages for the payment of the money. In the meantime, however, the work of firing had commenced in at least fifty different places; and these gentlemen were released when it was discovered that the plan of intimidation was unsuccessful.
Col. A.K. McClure, in the Franklin Repository, of August 24, 1864, relates the following "The main part of the town was enveloped in flames in ten minutes. No time was given to remove women or children or sick, or even the dead. No notice of the kind was communicated to any one; but like infuriated fiends from hell itself, the work of destruction was commenced. They did not have anything to learn in their hurried tirade - they proved experts in their calling. They divided into squads and fired every other house, and often every house, if they presented any prospect of plunder. They would burst in the door with iron bars or heavy plank, smash up any furniture with an ax, throw fluid or oil upon it, and apply the match. They almost invariably entered every room of each house, rifled the drawers of every bureau, appropriated money, jewelry, watches and any other valuables, and often would present pistols at the heads of inmates, men and women, and demand money or their lives. In nearly half the instances they demanded owners to ransom their property, and in a few cases it was done and the property burned. The main object of the men seemed to be plunder. Not a house escaped rifling - all were plundered of anything that could be carried away. In most cases houses were entered in the rudest manner, and no time whatever allowed even for the families to escape, much less to save anything. Many families had the utmost difficulty to get themselves and children out in time, and not one-half had so much as a change of clothing with them. They would rush from story to story to rob, and always fire the building at once in order to keep the family from detecting their robberies. Feeble and helpless women and children were treated like brutes - told insolently to get out or burn; and even the sick were not spared. Several invalids had to be carried out as the red flames licked their couches. Thus the work of desolation continued for two hours; more than half the town was on fire at once, and the wild glare of the flames, the shrieks of women and children, and often, louder than all, the blasphemy of the rebels, conspired to present such a scene of horror as has never been witnessed by the present generation. No one was spared save by accident. The widow and the fatherless cried and plead in vain that they would be homeless and helpless. A rude oath would close all hope of mercy, and they would fly to save their lives. The old and infirm who tottered before them were thrust aside, and the torch applied in their presence to hasten their departure. So thoroughly were all of them masters of the trade of destruction that there is scarcely a house standing in Chambersburg today that they attempted to burn, although their stay did not exceed two hours. In that brief period, the major portion of Chambersburg - its chief wealth and business, its capital and elegance - were devoured by a barbarous foe; three millions of property sacrificed; 3,000 human beings homeless and many penniless; and all without so much as a pretense that the citizens of the doomed village, or any of them, had violated any accepted rule of civilized warfare. Such is the deliberate, voluntary record made by Gen. Early, a corps commander in the insurgent army. The Government may not take summary vengeance, although it has abundant power to do so; but there is One whose voice is most terrible in wrath, who has declared: 'Vengeance is mine; I will repay.'"
Rev. Joseph Clark, in an article contributed to the Presbyterian of August 6,1864, says: "The burning was executed in the most ruthless and unrelenting manner. A squad of men would approach a house, break open the door, proceed to the most convenient part of the house and kindle a fire, with no other notice to the inmates, except to get out of it as soon as they could. In many cases, five, ten, fifteen minutes, were asked to secure some clothing, which were refused. Many families escaped with only the clothing they had on, and such as they could gather up in their haste. In many cases they were not allowed to take these, but were threatened with instant death if they did not cast them away and flee. Sick and aged people had to be carried to the fields. The corpses of one or two persons, who had recently died, were hastily interred in the gardens, and children, separated from their parents, ran wildly screaming through the streets. Those whose stupor, or eagerness to save something, detained them, emerged with difficulty from the streets filled with the sheeted flames of their burning homes. I should say here, that no provocation had been given; not a shot was fired on them in entering the town, and not until the full crisis was reached, did desperation, in a few instances, lead to desperate acts, and a few of the incendiaries left their bones to smoulder in the ruins.
"As to the result, I may say that the entire heart or body of the town is burned. Not a house or building of any kind is left on a space of about an average of ten squares of streets, extending each way from the center, with some four or five exceptions, where the buildings were isolated. Only the outskirts are left. The court-house, bank, town hall, German Reformed printing establishment, every store and hotel in the town, and every mill and factory in the space indicated, and two churches, were consumed, Between 300 and 400 dwellings were burned, leaving at least 2,500 persons without a home or a hearth. In value, three-fourths of the town were destroyed. The scene of desolation must be seen to be appreciated. Crumbling walls, stacks of chimneys and smoking embers, are all that remain of once elegant and happy homes. As to the scene itself, it beggars description. My own residence being on the outskirts, and feeling it the call of duty to be with my family, I could only look on from without. The day was sultry and calm, not a breath stirring, and each column of smoke rose black, straight and single, first one, and then another, and another, and another, until the columns blended and commingled; and then one vast and lurid column of smoke and flame rose perpendicular to the sky, and spread out into a vast crown, like a cloud of sackcloth hanging over the, doomed city; whilst the roar and the surging, the crackling and the crash of falling timbers and walls broke upon the still air with a fearful dissonance, and the screams and sounds of agony of burning animals, hogs and cows and horses, made the welkin horrid with the sounds of woe. It was a scene to be witnessed and heard once in a life-time."
The loss of property was but a small part of the sufferings inflicted upon the people of Chambersburg. Families were reduced from competence to penury, and their members scattered. The deep trials through which many were required to pass resulted in disease that swept many into premature graves, or rendered them helpless invalids for life. But the burning of papers and books and records and mementoes and keepsakes was a calamity which can never be repaired. Public and private interests were equally sacrificed to gratify the feeling of revenge on the part of Southern traitors.
Gen. Averill finally succeeded in leaving his position on the Potomac, and arrived at Greencastle, in his pursuit of McCausland At that point an unsuccessful effort was made to reach him by Gen. Couch who, prior to the approach of the Confederate incendiary, was holding possession of Chambersburg with about two score of soldiers. Averill, it seems, feared an attack from the combined forces of McCausland and another command detached from Early's right, and withdrew to Greenwood for the safety of his command. From the latter point he started in pursuit of McCausland but reached Chambersburg too late to save it from destruction, or capture any considerable portion of the rebel horde. His advent into the place is thus described by a writer in the Public Opinion of July 30, 1886.
THE VOW OF AVERILL'S MEN.
(At. 2 P.M. the Union forces advanced through the town. The citizens cheered the dusty and jaded warriors, but no soldierly huzzas came from their parched and suffocated throats, as they rode through smoke and flame and the intense heat of the smoldering ruins. One repeated exclamation of "My God" was all that was heard, and then, as they passed the flag staff, each one shouted "Remember Chambersburg." And so they exclaimed, and so they shouted, as they dashed at a trot through the town. - J.K. Shryock in Schneck's Burning of Chambersburg.
(They (the Confederates) were surprised one morning by Averill's men dashing in among them. The Federals slyly captured McCausland's pickets and before the rebels were fairly aroused from their slumbers, Averill's men were among them, cutting them down mercilessly to the cry of "Remember Chambersburg!" "Remember Chambersburg!" "Surrender you house-burning villains!" The vow made by these men as they rode through the Diamond and beheld the widespread ruin, was remembered and kept - J. Hoke's Reminiscences of the War.)
Slowly the men of Averill rode up the ruined street,
The Public Opinion, in its issue previously referred to, prepared a sketch, presenting several objects of great interest, touching the condition of the town in 1864 and 1886. They are made a part of this record:
"The persons who were then in business and continue to this day, are Edward Aughinbaugh, James L. Black; Christian Burkhart, now in the milling business; Andrew Banker, Henry Bishop; John F. Croft, now in the grocery business; C.H. Cressler, now Cressler & Greenawalt; John Doebler, John H. Dittman, Benjamin Duke, Alex. Fahnestock, Peter Feldman, N.P. Grove, J. &
Source: Biographical Annals of Franklin County, Pennsylvania : containing genealogical records of representative families, including many of the early settlers, and biographical sketches of prominent citizens; Chicago. Genealogical Pub. Co.. 1905. Notes: Prepared in part by George O. Seilhamer.
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